Zambezi---FreeEncartaFreeAssange

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<div id="siteNotice" class="mw-body-content"><div id="centralNotice"></div><!— CentralNotice —></div>
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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Zambezi</h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr" lang="en"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For other uses, see <a "/kiwi/Zambezi_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Zambezi (disambiguation)">Zambezi (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<table class="infobox geography" style="width: 256px; padding: 0; font-size: 89%;">
<tbody><tr class="mergedtoprow" title="Location name (local name)">
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.25em; background-color: #b3cce4;">Zambezi</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Other names">
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; font-weight: bold; background-color: #b3cce4;"><span style="white-space: nowrap"><i>Zambesi</i>, <i>Zambeze</i></span></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedbottomrow" title="Category">
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: #b3cce4;">River</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; padding: 0.5em;">
<div><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia,_Zambia,_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg" class=""><img alt="Zambezi River at junction of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe &amp; Botswana.jpg" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg/256px-Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg/384px-Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg/512px-Zambezi_River_at_junction_of_Namibia%2C_Zambia%2C_Zimbabwe_%26_Botswana.jpg 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="399" width="256" height="170"></a></div>
<div style="padding-top:0.4em">The Zambezi River at the junction of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow" title="Nickname(s)">
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"><b>Nickname:</b> <i>Besi</i></td>
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<td colspan="2"></td>
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<tr class="mergedtoprow" title="Country/Countries in which the site lies">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Countries</th>
<td><span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a>,</span> <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Angola" title="Angola">Angola</a>,</span> <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Namibia" title="Namibia">Namibia</a>,</span> <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Botswana" title="Botswana">Botswana</a>,</span> <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Zimbabwe" title="Zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a>,</span> <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Mozambique" title="Mozambique">Mozambique</a></span></td>
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<tr class="mergedrow" style="height: 0.2em;">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" style="height: 0.2em;">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow" title="Source name">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Source</th>
<td>Zambezi Source National Forest</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Source location">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;location</td>
<td>Ikelenge District, <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/North-Western_Province,_Zambia" title="North-Western Province, Zambia">North-Western Province</a></span>, <span style="white-space: nowrap"><a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a></span></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Source elevation above sea level (ASL)">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;elevation</td>
<td>1,500&nbsp;m (4,921&nbsp;ft)</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Source geographic coordinates">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;coordinates</td>
<td><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><span style="white-space: nowrap;"><img "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png 1x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/34px-WMA_button2b.png 2x" class="wmamapbutton noprint" title="Show location on an interactive map" alt="" style="padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px; cursor: pointer;"><a class="external text" "tools.wmflabsencarta2018.ga/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Zambezi&amp;params=11_22_11_S_24_18_30_E_region:ZM_type:river" style="white-space: nowrap;"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">112211S</span> <span class="longitude">241830E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">11.36972S 24.30833E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">-11.36972; 24.30833</span></span></span></a></span></span></span></td>
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<tr class="mergedrow" title="Mouth name">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Mouth</th>
<td><a "/kiwi/Indian_Ocean" title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Mouth geographic coordinates">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;coordinates</td>
<td><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><span style="white-space: nowrap;"><img "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png 1x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/34px-WMA_button2b.png 2x" class="wmamapbutton noprint" title="Show location on an interactive map" alt="" style="padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px; cursor: pointer;"><a class="external text" "tools.wmflabsencarta2018.ga/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Zambezi&amp;params=18_34_14_S_36_28_13_E_region:ZM_type:river" style="white-space: nowrap;"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">183414S</span> <span class="longitude">362813E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">18.57056S 36.47028E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">-18.57056; 36.47028</span></span></span></a></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span id="coordinates"><a "/kiwi/Geographic_coordinate_system" title="Geographic coordinate system">Coordinates</a>: <span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><span style="white-space: nowrap;"><img "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/17px-WMA_button2b.png 1x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/34px-WMA_button2b.png 2x" class="wmamapbutton noprint" title="Show location on an interactive map" alt="" style="padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px; cursor: pointer;"><a class="external text" "tools.wmflabsencarta2018.ga/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Zambezi&amp;params=18_34_14_S_36_28_13_E_region:ZM_type:river" style="white-space: nowrap;"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">183414S</span> <span class="longitude">362813E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">18.57056S 36.47028E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">-18.57056; 36.47028</span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" style="height: 0.2em;">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow" title="Length">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Length</th>
<td>2,574&nbsp;km (1,599&nbsp;mi)</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Drainage basin/catchment area/watershed">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Basin</th>
<td>1,390,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> (536,682&nbsp;sq&nbsp;mi) <i><sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-INBO_2-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-INBO-2">[2]</a></sup></i></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Discharge figures measured at">
<th style="white-space: nowrap;">Discharge</th>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Average discharge">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;average</td>
<td>3,400&nbsp;m<sup>3</sup>/s (120,070&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft/s) <i><sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-INBO_2-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-INBO-2">[2]</a></sup></i></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Maximal discharge">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;max</td>
<td>18,600&nbsp;m<sup>3</sup>/s (656,853&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft/s)</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" title="Minimal discharge">
<td style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;-&nbsp;min</td>
<td>920&nbsp;m<sup>3</sup>/s (32,489&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft/s)</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow" style="height: 0.2em;">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; padding: 0.5em;">
<div><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi.svg" class=""><img alt="Zambezi.svg" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Zambezi.svg/256px-Zambezi.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Zambezi.svg/384px-Zambezi.svg.png 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Zambezi.svg/512px-Zambezi.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="478" data-file-height="253" width="256" height="135"></a></div>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<p>The <b>Zambezi</b> (also spelled <b>Zambeze</b> and <b>Zambesi</b>) is the <a "/kiwi/List_of_rivers_by_length" title="List of rivers by length">fourth-longest</a> <a "/kiwi/River" title="River">river</a> in <a "/kiwi/Africa" title="Africa">Africa</a>, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the <a "/kiwi/Indian_Ocean" title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean</a> from Africa. The area of its <a "/kiwi/Drainage_basin" title="Drainage basin">basin</a> is 1,390,000 square kilometres (540,000&nbsp;sq&nbsp;mi),<sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-INBO_2-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-INBO-2">[2]</a></sup> slightly less than half of the Nile's. The 2,574-kilometre-long river (1,599&nbsp;mi) rises in <a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a> and flows through eastern <a "/kiwi/Angola" title="Angola">Angola</a>, along the eastern border of <a "/kiwi/Namibia" title="Namibia">Namibia</a> and the northern border of <a "/kiwi/Botswana" title="Botswana">Botswana</a>, then along the border between <a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a> and <a "/kiwi/Zimbabwe" title="Zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a> to <a "/kiwi/Mozambique" title="Mozambique">Mozambique</a>, where it crosses the country to empty into the <a "/kiwi/Indian_Ocean" title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean</a>.</p>
<p>The Zambezi's most noted feature is <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a>. Other notable falls include the <a "/kiwi/Chavuma_Falls" title="Chavuma Falls">Chavuma Falls</a> at the border between Zambia and Angola, and <a "/kiwi/Ngonye_Falls" title="Ngonye Falls">Ngonye Falls</a>, near <a "/kiwi/Sioma" title="Sioma">Sioma</a> in Western Zambia.</p>
<p>There are two main sources of <a "/kiwi/Hydroelectric" class="mw-redirect" title="Hydroelectric">hydroelectric</a> power on the river, the <a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba Dam</a>, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, and the <a "/kiwi/Cahora_Bassa_Dam" title="Cahora Bassa Dam">Cahora Bassa Dam</a> in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There is also a smaller <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls_Power_Station" title="Victoria Falls Power Station">power station at Victoria Falls</a>.</p>
<p></p>
<div id="toc" class="toc">
<div class="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
<span class="toctoggle">&nbsp;[<a role="button" tabindex="0" class="togglelink">hide</a>]&nbsp;</span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a "#Course_of_the_river"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Course of the river</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a "#Sources"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Sources</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a "#Upper_Zambezi"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Upper Zambezi</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a "#Middle_Zambezi"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Middle Zambezi</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a "#Lower_Zambezi"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Lower Zambezi</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a "#Delta"><span class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Delta</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a "#Ecology_of_the_delta"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Ecology of the delta</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a "#Climate"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Climate</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a "#Wildlife"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Wildlife</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a "#Tributaries"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Tributaries</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a "#Geological_history"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Geological history</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a "#History"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a "#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a "#Exploration_of_the_river"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Exploration of the river</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a "#Economy"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Economy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a "#Transport"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Transport</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a "#Ecology"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Ecology</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a "#EUS_outbreak"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">EUS outbreak</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a "#Major_towns"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Major towns</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a "#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a "#References"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a "#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a "#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Course_of_the_river">Course of the river</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Course of the river">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Sources">Sources</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Sources">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:452px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg/450px-Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg.png" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg/675px-Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg/900px-Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2931" data-file-height="1873" width="450" height="288"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_river_basin-en.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
The Zambezi and its river basin</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The river rises in a black marshy <a "/kiwi/Dambo" title="Dambo">dambo</a> in dense undulating <a "/kiwi/Miombo_woodland" class="mw-redirect" title="Miombo woodland">miombo woodland</a> 50 kilometres (31&nbsp;mi) north of <a "/kiwi/Mwinilunga" title="Mwinilunga">Mwinilunga</a> and 20 kilometres (12&nbsp;mi) south of <a "/w/index.php?title=Ikelenge&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ikelenge (page does not exist)">Ikelenge</a> in the <a "/w/index.php?title=Ikelenge_District&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ikelenge District (page does not exist)">Ikelenge District</a> of <a "/kiwi/North-Western_Province,_Zambia" title="North-Western Province, Zambia">North-Western Province</a>, <a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a> at about 1,524 metres (5,000&nbsp;ft) above <a "/kiwi/Sea_level" title="Sea level">sea level</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> The area around the source is a <a "/kiwi/National_monument" title="National monument">national monument</a>, <a "/kiwi/Forest_reserve" class="mw-redirect" title="Forest reserve">forest reserve</a> and <a "/kiwi/Important_Bird_Area" title="Important Bird Area">Important Bird Area</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup></p>
<p>Eastward of the source, the <a "/kiwi/Drainage_basin" title="Drainage basin">watershed</a> between the <a "/kiwi/Congo_River" title="Congo River">Congo</a> and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south. This distinctly cuts off the basin of the <a "/kiwi/Lualaba_River" title="Lualaba River">Lualaba</a> (the main branch of the upper Congo) from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as clearly defined, but the two river systems do not connect.<sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup></p>
<p>The region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 9001200 m high, composed in the remote interior of <a "/kiwi/Metamorphic_rock" title="Metamorphic rock">metamorphic</a> beds and fringed with the <a "/kiwi/Igneous" class="mw-redirect" title="Igneous">igneous</a> rocks of the Victoria Falls. At <a "/kiwi/Shupanga" class="mw-redirect" title="Shupanga">Shupanga</a>, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow <a "/kiwi/Sandstone" title="Sandstone">sandstones</a>, with an occasional band of <a "/kiwi/Limestone" title="Limestone">limestone</a>, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, and these persist beyond <a "/kiwi/Tete" class="mw-redirect" title="Tete">Tete</a>, where they are associated with extensive seams of <a "/kiwi/Coal" title="Coal">coal</a>. Coal is also found in the district just below Victoria Falls. <a "/kiwi/Gold" title="Gold">Gold</a>-bearing rocks occur in several places.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Upper_Zambezi">Upper Zambezi</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Upper Zambezi">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The river flows to the south-west into Angola for about 240 kilometres (150&nbsp;mi), then is joined by sizeable <a "/kiwi/Tributary" title="Tributary">tributaries</a> such as the <a "/kiwi/Luena_River,_Angola" title="Luena River, Angola">Luena</a> and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west.<sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup> It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons. It enters dense evergreen <a "/kiwi/Ecoregions_of_Zambia#Cryptosepalum_dry_forests" title="Ecoregions of Zambia">Cryptosepalum dry forest</a>, though on its western side, <a "/kiwi/Ecoregions_of_Zambia#Western_Zambezian_grasslands" title="Ecoregions of Zambia">Western Zambezian grasslands</a> also occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres (1,300&nbsp;ft) wide in the rainy season and flows rapidly, with <a "/kiwi/Rapids" title="Rapids">rapids</a> ending in the <a "/kiwi/Chavuma_Falls" title="Chavuma Falls">Chavuma Falls</a>, where the river flows through a rocky fissure. The river drops about 400 metres (1,300&nbsp;ft) in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres (4,900&nbsp;ft) to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres (3,600&nbsp;ft), in a distance of about 400 kilometres (250&nbsp;mi). From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is very uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres (590&nbsp;ft) in a distance of around 800 kilometres (500&nbsp;mi).</p>
<p>The first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the <a "/kiwi/Kabompo_River" title="Kabompo River">Kabompo River</a> in the north-western province of Zambia. A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. Civilization was built on farming, and the surplus of crops. <sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup> The <a "/kiwi/Savanna" title="Savanna">savanna</a> through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with <a "/kiwi/Borassus" title="Borassus">Borassus</a> <a "/kiwi/Fan_palm" title="Fan palm">fan palms</a>. A little farther south is the <a "/kiwi/Confluence" title="Confluence">confluence</a> with the <a "/kiwi/Lungwebungu_River" title="Lungwebungu River">Lungwebungu River</a>. This is the beginning of the <a "/kiwi/Barotse_Floodplain" title="Barotse Floodplain">Barotse Floodplain</a>, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle.</p>
<p>Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the <a "/kiwi/Lungwebungu" class="mw-redirect" title="Lungwebungu">Lungwebungu</a> the country becomes very flat, and the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25&nbsp;km in the <a "/kiwi/Rainy_season" class="mw-redirect" title="Rainy season">rainy season</a>. For more than 200&nbsp;km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life, society and culture.</p>
<p>Eighty kilometres further down, the <a "/kiwi/Luanginga" class="mw-redirect" title="Luanginga">Luanginga</a>, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the <a "/w/index.php?title=Luampa_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Luampa River (page does not exist)">Luampa</a>/<a "/kiwi/Luena_River,_Western_Zambia" class="mw-redirect" title="Luena River, Western Zambia">Luena</a> system.<sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup></p>
<p>A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is <a "/kiwi/Lealui" title="Lealui">Lealui</a>, one of the capitals of the <a "/kiwi/Lozi_people" title="Lozi people">Lozi people</a> who populate the Zambian region of <a "/kiwi/Barotseland" title="Barotseland">Barotseland</a> in Western Province. The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui; the other is at <a "/kiwi/Limulunga" title="Limulunga">Limulunga</a>, which is on high ground and serves as the capital during the rainy season. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the <a "/kiwi/Kuomboka" title="Kuomboka">Kuomboka</a>.</p>
<p>After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240&nbsp;km. Before this, the <a "/kiwi/Ngonye_Falls" title="Ngonye Falls">Ngonye Falls</a> and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river briefly borders Namibia's <a "/kiwi/Caprivi_Strip" title="Caprivi Strip">Caprivi Strip</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup> The strip projects from the main body of Namibia, and results from the colonial era: it was added to <a "/kiwi/German_South-West_Africa" class="mw-redirect" title="German South-West Africa">German South-West Africa</a> expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi.</p>
<p>Below the junction of the <a "/kiwi/Cuando_River" title="Cuando River">Cuando River</a> and the Zambezi the river bends almost due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, and flows slowly, but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Middle_Zambezi">Middle Zambezi</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Middle Zambezi">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Victoria5.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Victoria5.jpg/220px-Victoria5.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Victoria5.jpg/330px-Victoria5.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Victoria5.jpg/440px-Victoria5.jpg 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="512" width="220" height="176"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Victoria5.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
<a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a>, the end of the upper Zambezi and beginning of the middle Zambezi</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the upper and middle Zambezi. Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 200 kilometres (120&nbsp;mi), cutting through perpendicular walls of <a "/kiwi/Basalt" title="Basalt">basalt</a> 20 to 60 metres (66 to 200&nbsp;ft) apart in hills 200 to 250 metres (660 to 820&nbsp;ft) high. The river flows swiftly through the Batoka Gorge, the current being continually interrupted by reefs. It has been described<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Citation_needed" title="encarta2018.ga:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (March 2009)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> as one of the world's most spectacular whitewater trips, a tremendous challenge for kayakers and rafters alike. Beyond the gorge are a succession of rapids which end 240&nbsp;km (150&nbsp;mi) below Victoria Falls. Over this distance, the river drops 250 metres (820&nbsp;ft).</p>
<p>At this point, the river enters <a "/kiwi/Lake_Kariba" title="Lake Kariba">Lake Kariba</a>, created in 1959 following the completion of the <a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba Dam</a>. The lake is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world, and the <a "/kiwi/Hydroelectric" class="mw-redirect" title="Hydroelectric">hydroelectric</a> power-generating facilities at the dam provide electricity to much of Zambia and <a "/kiwi/Zimbabwe" title="Zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a>.</p>
<p>The <a "/kiwi/Luangwa_River" title="Luangwa River">Luangwa</a> and the <a "/kiwi/Kafue" title="Kafue">Kafue</a> are the two largest left-hand tributaries of the Zambezi. The Kafue joins the main river in a quiet deep stream about 180 metres (590&nbsp;ft) wide. From this point the northward bend of the Zambezi is checked and the stream continues due east. At the confluence of the Luangwa (1537' S) it enters Mozambique.</p>
<p>The middle Zambezi ends where the river enters Lake <a "/kiwi/Cahora_Bassa" title="Cahora Bassa">Cahora Bassa</a> (also spelled Cabora Bassa). Formerly the site of dangerous rapids known as Kebrabassa, the lake was created in 1974 by the construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Lower_Zambezi">Lower Zambezi</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Lower Zambezi">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The lower Zambezi's 650&nbsp;km from Cahora Bassa to the Indian Ocean is navigable, although the river is shallow in many places during the <a "/kiwi/Dry_season" title="Dry season">dry season</a>. This shallowness arises as the river enters a broad valley and spreads out over a large area. Only at one point, the <a "/kiwi/Lupata_Gorge" title="Lupata Gorge">Lupata Gorge</a>, 320&nbsp;km from its mouth, is the river confined between high hills. Here it is scarcely 200 m wide. Elsewhere it is from 5 to 8&nbsp;km wide, flowing gently in many streams. The river bed is sandy, and the banks are low and reed-fringed. At places, however, and especially in the <a "/kiwi/Rainy_season" class="mw-redirect" title="Rainy season">rainy season</a>, the streams unite into one broad fast-flowing river.</p>
<p>About 160&nbsp;km from the sea the Zambezi receives the drainage of <a "/kiwi/Lake_Malawi" title="Lake Malawi">Lake Malawi</a> through the <a "/kiwi/Shire_River" title="Shire River">Shire River</a>. On approaching the <a "/kiwi/Indian_Ocean" title="Indian Ocean">Indian Ocean</a>, the river splits up into a <a "/kiwi/River_delta" title="River delta">delta</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Dorling_5-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Dorling-5">[5]</a></sup> Each of the four primary distributaries, Kongone, Luabo and Timbwe, is obstructed by a sand bar. A more northerly branch, called the <a "/kiwi/Chinde_River" title="Chinde River">Chinde</a> mouth, has a minimum depth at low water of 2 m at the entrance and 4 m further in, and is the branch used for navigation. 100&nbsp;km further north is a river called the <a "/kiwi/Quelimane" title="Quelimane">Quelimane</a>, after the town at its mouth. This stream, which is silting up, receives the overflow of the Zambezi in the rainy season.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Delta">Delta</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Delta">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The delta of the Zambezi is today about half as broad as it was before the construction of the <a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba</a> and <a "/kiwi/Cahora_Bassa" title="Cahora Bassa">Cahora Bassa</a> dams controlled the seasonal variations in the flow rate of the river.</p>
<p>Before the dams were built seasonal flooding of the Zambezi had quite a different impact on the ecosystems of the delta from today as it brought nutritious fresh water down to the Indian Ocean coastal wetlands. The lower Zambezi experienced a small <a "/kiwi/Flood" title="Flood">flood</a> surge early in the dry season as rain in the Gwembe catchment and north-eastern Zimbabwe rushed through while rain in the Upper Zambezi, Kafue, and Lake Malawi basins, and Luangwa to a lesser extent, is held back by swamps and floodplains. The discharge of these systems contributed to a much larger flood in March or April, with a mean monthly maximum for April of 6,700 cubic metres (240,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) per second at the delta. The record flood was more than three times as big, 22,500 cubic metres (790,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) per second being recorded in 1958. By contrast the discharge at the end of the dry season averaged just 500 cubic metres (18,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) per second.<sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup></p>
<p>In the 1960s and 1970s the building of dams changed that pattern completely. Downstream the mean monthly minimummaximum was 500 cubic metres (18,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) to 6,000 cubic metres (210,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) per second; now it is 1,000 cubic metres (35,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) to 3,900 cubic metres (140,000&nbsp;cu&nbsp;ft) per second. Medium-level floods especially, of the kind to which the ecology of the lower Zambezi was adapted, happen less often and have a shorter duration. As with the <a "/kiwi/Itezhi-Tezhi_Dam" title="Itezhi-Tezhi Dam">Itezhi-Tezhi Dam</a>'s deleterious effects on the Kafue Flats, this has the following effects:</p>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Fish" title="Fish">fish</a>, <a "/kiwi/Bird" title="Bird">bird</a> and other <a "/kiwi/Wildlife" title="Wildlife">wildlife</a> feeding and breeding patterns disrupted</li>
<li>less <a "/kiwi/Grassland" title="Grassland">grassland</a> after flooding for <a "/kiwi/Grazing" title="Grazing">grazing</a> wildlife and <a "/kiwi/Cattle" title="Cattle">cattle</a></li>
<li>traditional farming and fishing patterns disrupted.</li>
</ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Ecology_of_the_delta">Ecology of the delta</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Ecology of the delta">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg/300px-Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg/450px-Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg/600px-Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg 2x" data-file-width="720" data-file-height="480" width="300" height="200"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_River_Delta.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Annotated view of the Zambezi river delta from space.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-6">[6]</a></sup></div>
</div>
</div>
<p>As well as the Zambezi this section applies to the <a "/kiwi/Buzi_River" title="Buzi River">Buzi</a>, <a "/kiwi/Pungwe_River" title="Pungwe River">Pungwe</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Save_River_(Africa)" title="Save River (Africa)">Save</a> rivers which also drain the Zambezi basin. Together the floodplains of these four rivers make up the <a "/kiwi/World_Wildlife_Fund" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wildlife Fund">World Wildlife Fund</a>'s Zambezian coastal flooded savanna <a "/kiwi/Ecoregion" title="Ecoregion">ecoregion</a>. They are a mixture of open grassland and freshwater swamp inland from the Indian Ocean in Mozambique.</p>
<p>Although the dams have stemmed some of the annual <a "/kiwi/Flood" title="Flood">flooding</a> of the lower Zambezi and caused the area of floodplain to be greatly reduced they have not removed flooding completely. They cannot control extreme floods, they have only made medium-level floods less frequent. When heavy rain in the lower Zambezi combines with good runoff upstream, massive floods still happen and the wetlands are still an important habitat. However, as well as the shrinking of the wetlands further severe damage to wildlife was caused by uncontrolled hunting of animals such as <a "/kiwi/African_buffalo" title="African buffalo">buffalo</a> and <a "/kiwi/Waterbuck" title="Waterbuck">waterbuck</a> during the <a "/kiwi/Mozambique_Civil_War" class="mw-redirect" title="Mozambique Civil War">Mozambique Civil War</a> and now the conflict has ceased it is likely the floodplains will become more populated, and further damming has also been discussed. The only protected area of floodplain is the <a "/kiwi/Marromeu_Game_Reserve" title="Marromeu Game Reserve">Marromeu Game Reserve</a> near the city of <a "/kiwi/Beira,_Mozambique" title="Beira, Mozambique">Beira</a>.</p>
<p>Although the region has seen a reduction in the populations of the large mammals, it is still home to some including the <a "/kiwi/Reedbuck" title="Reedbuck">reedbuck</a> and migrating <a "/kiwi/Common_eland" title="Common eland">eland</a>. Carnivores found here include <a "/kiwi/Lion" title="Lion">lion</a> (<i>Panthera leo</i>), <a "/kiwi/Leopard" title="Leopard">leopard</a> (<i>Panthera pardus</i>), <a "/kiwi/Cheetah" title="Cheetah">cheetah</a> (<i>Acinonyx jubatus</i>), <a "/kiwi/Spotted_hyena" title="Spotted hyena">spotted hyena</a> (<i>Crocuta crocuta</i>) and <a "/kiwi/Side-striped_jackal" title="Side-striped jackal">side-striped jackal</a> (<i>Canis adustus</i>). The floodplains are a haven for migratory waterbirds including <a "/kiwi/Northern_pintail" title="Northern pintail">pintails</a>, <a "/kiwi/Garganey" title="Garganey">garganey</a>, <a "/kiwi/African_openbill" title="African openbill">African openbill</a> (<i>Anastomus lamelligerus</i>), <a "/kiwi/Saddle-billed_stork" title="Saddle-billed stork">saddle-billed stork</a> (<i>Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis</i>), <a "/kiwi/Wattled_crane" title="Wattled crane">wattled crane</a> ("Bugeranus carunculatus"), and <a "/kiwi/Great_white_pelican" title="Great white pelican">great white pelican</a> (<i>Pelecanus onocrotalus</i>).</p>
<p>Reptiles include <a "/kiwi/Nile_crocodile" title="Nile crocodile">Nile crocodile</a> (<i>Crocodylus niloticus</i>), <a "/kiwi/Nile_monitor" title="Nile monitor">Nile monitor</a> lizard (<i>Varanus niloticus</i>) and <a "/kiwi/Python_sebae" class="mw-redirect" title="Python sebae">African rock python</a> (<i>Python sebae</i>), the endemic <a "/w/index.php?title=Pungwe_worm_snake&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pungwe worm snake (page does not exist)">Pungwe worm snake</a> (<i>Leptotyphlops pungwensis</i>) and three other snakes that are nearly endemic; <a "/w/index.php?title=Floodplain_water_snake&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Floodplain water snake (page does not exist)">floodplain water snake</a> (<i>Lycodonomorphus whytei obscuriventris</i>), <a "/w/index.php?title=Dwarf_wolf_snake&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Dwarf wolf snake (page does not exist)">dwarf wolf snake</a> (<i>Lycophidion nanus</i>) and eyebrow viper (<i><a "/kiwi/Proatheris" title="Proatheris">Proatheris</a></i>).</p>
<p>There are a number of endemic butterflies.</p>
<ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional center">
<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px">
<div style="width: 155px">
<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;">
<div style="margin:15px auto;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg/68px-Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg/102px-Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg/136px-Zambezi_Barotse_floodplain.jpg 2x" data-file-width="396" data-file-height="700" width="68" height="120"></a></div>
</div>
<div class="gallerytext">
<p>NASA false-colour of the upper Zambezi and <a "/kiwi/Barotseland" title="Barotseland">Barotse</a> (Balozi) floodplain during an extreme flood in 2003.</p>
</div>
</div>
</li>
<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px">
<div style="width: 155px">
<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;">
<div style="margin:15px auto;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_delta.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Zambezi_delta.jpg/119px-Zambezi_delta.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Zambezi_delta.jpg/179px-Zambezi_delta.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Zambezi_delta.jpg/238px-Zambezi_delta.jpg 2x" data-file-width="5253" data-file-height="5294" width="119" height="120"></a></div>
</div>
<div class="gallerytext">
<p>The Zambezi's delta.</p>
</div>
</div>
</li>
<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px">
<div style="width: 155px">
<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;">
<div style="margin:35.5px auto;"><a "/kiwi/File:ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg/120px-ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg/180px-ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg/240px-ISS009-E-7622-_Zambezi_river_near_Mongu.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3032" data-file-height="1998" width="120" height="79"></a></div>
</div>
<div class="gallerytext">
<p>The river and its floodplain near Mongu in Zambia.</p>
</div>
</div>
</li>
<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px">
<div style="width: 155px">
<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;">
<div style="margin:27px auto;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_Flood_Plain,_Namibia_(MODIS).jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg/120px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg/180px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg/240px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28MODIS%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4552" data-file-height="3640" width="120" height="96"></a></div>
</div>
<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Water is black in this false-colour of the Zambezi flood plain.</p>
</div>
</div>
</li>
<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px">
<div style="width: 155px">
<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;">
<div style="margin:35px auto;"><a "/kiwi/File:Zambezi_Flood_Plain,_Namibia_(EO-1).jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg/120px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg/180px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg/240px-Zambezi_Flood_Plain%2C_Namibia_%28EO-1%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4200" data-file-height="2800" width="120" height="80"></a></div>
</div>
<div class="gallerytext">
<p>This highly detailed true-colour shows the stark eastern edge of the Zambezi floodplain.</p>
</div>
</div>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Climate">Climate</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Climate">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The north of the Zambezi basin has mean annual rainfall of 1100 to 1400&nbsp;mm which declines towards the south, reaching about half that figure in the south-west. The rain falls in a 4-to-6-month summer <a "/kiwi/Rainy_season" class="mw-redirect" title="Rainy season">rainy season</a> when the <a "/kiwi/Inter-Tropical_Convergence_Zone" class="mw-redirect" title="Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone">Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone</a> moves over the basin from the north between October and March. <a "/kiwi/Evaporation" title="Evaporation">Evaporation</a> rates are high (1600&nbsp;mm-2300&nbsp;mm) and much water is lost this way in swamps and floodplains, especially in the south-west of the basin.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Wildlife">Wildlife</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Wildlife">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The river supports large populations of many animals. <a "/kiwi/Hippo" class="mw-redirect" title="Hippo">Hippo</a> are abundant along most of the calm stretches of the river, as well as <a "/kiwi/Nile_crocodile" title="Nile crocodile">Nile crocodiles</a>. <a "/kiwi/Monitor_lizard" title="Monitor lizard">Monitor lizards</a> are found in many places. Birds are abundant, with species including <a "/kiwi/Heron" title="Heron">heron</a>, <a "/kiwi/Pelican" title="Pelican">pelican</a>, <a "/kiwi/Egret" title="Egret">egret</a> and <a "/kiwi/African_fish_eagle" title="African fish eagle">African fish eagle</a> present in large numbers. <a "/kiwi/Riverine" class="mw-redirect" title="Riverine">Riverine</a> woodland also supports many large animals, such as <a "/kiwi/African_buffalo" title="African buffalo">buffalo</a>, <a "/kiwi/Zebra" title="Zebra">zebras</a>, <a "/kiwi/Giraffe" title="Giraffe">giraffes</a>, <a "/kiwi/Elephant" title="Elephant">elephants</a>.</p>
<p>The Zambezi also supports several hundred species of <a "/kiwi/Fish" title="Fish">fish</a>, some of which are <a "/kiwi/Endemic_(ecology)" class="mw-redirect" title="Endemic (ecology)">endemic</a> to the river. Important species include <a "/kiwi/Cichlid" title="Cichlid">cichlids</a> which are fished heavily for food, as well as <a "/kiwi/Catfish" title="Catfish">catfish</a>, <a "/kiwi/Tigerfish" title="Tigerfish">tigerfish</a>, <a "/kiwi/Zambezi_yellowfish" title="Zambezi yellowfish">yellowfish</a> and other large species. The <a "/kiwi/Bull_shark" title="Bull shark">bull shark</a> is sometimes known as the Zambezi shark after the river, but is found around the world.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Tributaries">Tributaries</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Tributaries">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p><i><b>Upper Zambezi: 507,200&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, discharges 1044 m<sup>3</sup>/s at Victoria Falls, comprising:</b></i></p>
<dl>
<dd><i>Northern Highlands catchment, 222,570 km<sup>2</sup>, 850 m<sup>3</sup>/s at <a "/kiwi/Lukulu" title="Lukulu">Lukulu</a>:</i>
<ul>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Chifumage_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Chifumage River (page does not exist)">Chifumage River</a>: <a "/kiwi/Angola" title="Angola">Angolan</a> central plateau</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luena_River,_Angola" title="Luena River, Angola">Luena River</a>: Angolan central plateau</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kabompo_River" title="Kabompo River">Kabompo River</a>: 72,200 km<sup>2</sup>, NW highlands of Zambia</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Lungwebungu_River" title="Lungwebungu River">Lungwebungu River</a>: 47,400 km<sup>2</sup>, Angolan central plateau</li>
</ul>
</dd>
<dd><i>Central Plains catchment, 284,630 km<sup>2</sup>, 196 m<sup>3</sup>/s (Victoria FallsLukulu):</i>
<ul>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Luanguingu_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Luanguingu River (page does not exist)">Luanguingu River</a>: 34,600 km<sup>2</sup>, Angolan central plateau</li>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Luampa_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Luampa River (page does not exist)">Luampa River</a>: 20,500 km<sup>2</sup>, eastern side of Zambezi</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cuando_River" title="Cuando River">Cuando /Linyanti/Chobe River</a>: 133,200 km<sup>2</sup>, Angolan S plateau &amp; <a "/kiwi/Caprivi_Strip" title="Caprivi Strip">Caprivi</a></li>
</ul>
</dd>
</dl>
<p><b><i>Middle Zambezi cumulatively 1,050,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, 2442 m<sup>3</sup>/s, measured at Cahora Bassa Gorge</i></b></p>
<dl>
<dd>(Middle section by itself: 542,800 km<sup>2</sup>, discharges 1398 m<sup>3</sup>/s (C. BassaVictoria Falls)</dd>
<dd><i>Gwembe Catchment, 156,600 km<sup>2</sup>, 232 m<sup>3</sup>/s (Kariba GorgeVic Falls):</i>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Gwayi_River" title="Gwayi River">Gwayi River</a>: 54,610 km<sup>2</sup>, NW Zimbabwe</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Sengwa_River" title="Sengwa River">Sengwa River</a>: 25,000 km<sup>2</sup>, North-central Zimbabwe</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Sanyati_River" class="mw-redirect" title="Sanyati River">Sanyati River</a>: 43,500 km<sup>2</sup>, North-central Zimbabwe</li>
</ul>
</dd>
<dd><i>Kariba Gorge to C. Bassa catchment, 386200 km<sup>2</sup>, 1166 m<sup>3</sup>/s (C. BassaKariba Gorge):</i>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kafue_River" title="Kafue River">Kafue River</a>: 154,200 km<sup>2</sup>, 285 m<sup>3</sup>/s, West-central Zambia &amp; <a "/kiwi/Copperbelt" title="Copperbelt">Copperbelt</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luangwa_River" title="Luangwa River">Luangwa River</a>: 151,400 km<sup>2</sup>, 547 m<sup>3</sup>/s, Luangwa Rift Valley &amp; plateau NW of it</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Panhane_River" class="mw-redirect" title="Panhane River">Panhane River</a>: 23,897 km<sup>2</sup>, North-central Zimbabwe plateau</li>
</ul>
</dd>
</dl>
<p><b><i>Lower Zambezi cumulatively, 1,378,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, 3424 m<sup>3</sup>/s, measured at Marromeu</i></b></p>
<dl>
<dd>(Lower section by itself: 328,000 km<sup>2</sup>, 982 m<sup>3</sup>/s (MarromeuC. Bassa))
<ul>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Luia_River&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Luia River (page does not exist)">Luia River</a>: 28,000 km<sup>2</sup>, Moravia-Angonia plateau, N of Zambezi</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luenha_River" class="mw-redirect" title="Luenha River">Luenha River</a>/<a "/kiwi/Mazoe_River" class="mw-redirect" title="Mazoe River">Mazoe River</a>: 54,144 km<sup>2</sup>, 152 m<sup>3</sup>/s, Manica plateau, NE Zimbabwe</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Shire_River" title="Shire River">Shire River</a> , 154,000 km<sup>2</sup>, 539 m<sup>3</sup>/s, <a "/kiwi/Lake_Malawi" title="Lake Malawi">Lake Malawi</a> basin</li>
</ul>
</dd>
<dd>Zambezi Delta, 12,000 km<sup>2</sup></dd>
</dl>
<p><b>Total Zambezi river basin: 1,390,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>, 3424 m<sup>3</sup>/s discharged into delta</b></p>
<p><i>Source: Beilfuss &amp; Dos Santos (2001)</i><sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup> The <a "/kiwi/Okavango_Basin" title="Okavango Basin">Okavango Basin</a> is not included in the figures because it only occasionally overflows to any extent into the Zambezi.</p>
<p>Due to the rainfall distribution, northern tributaries contribute much more water than southern ones, for example: the Northern Highlands catchment of the upper Zambezi contributes 25%, Kafue 8%, Luangwa and Shire Rivers 16% each, total 65% of Zambezi discharge. The large Cuando basin in the south-west on the other hand contributes only about 2 m<sup>3</sup>/s because most is lost through evaporation in its swamp systems. The 1940s and 1950s were particularly wet decades in the basin. Since 1975, it has been drier, the average discharge being only 70% of that for the years 1930 to 1958.<sup id="cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Beilfuss-1">[1]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Geological_history">Geological history</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Geological history">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>More than two million years ago, the Upper Zambezi river used to flow south through what is now the <a "/kiwi/Makgadikgadi_Pan" title="Makgadikgadi Pan">Makgadikgadi Pan</a> to the <a "/kiwi/Limpopo_River" title="Limpopo River">Limpopo River</a>. The land around the pan experienced <a "/kiwi/Tectonic_uplift" title="Tectonic uplift">tectonic uplift</a> (perhaps as part of the <a "/kiwi/African_superswell" title="African superswell">African superswell</a>) and a large lake formed, and extended east.</p>
<p>Meanwhile, 1,000 kilometres (620&nbsp;mi) east, a western tributary of the <a "/kiwi/Shire_River" title="Shire River">Shire River</a> in the <a "/kiwi/East_African_Rift" title="East African Rift">East African Rift</a>'s southern extension through <a "/kiwi/Malawi" title="Malawi">Malawi</a> eroded a deep valley on its western escarpment. At the rate of a few <a "/kiwi/Centimetre" title="Centimetre">cm</a> per year, this river, the Middle Zambezi, started cutting back the bed of its river towards the west, aided by <a "/kiwi/Graben" title="Graben">grabens</a> (<a "/kiwi/Rift_valley" title="Rift valley">rift valleys</a>) forming along its course in an east-west axis. As it did so it <a "/kiwi/River_capture" class="mw-redirect" title="River capture">captured</a> a number of south-flowing rivers such as the Luangwa and Kafue.</p>
<p>Eventually the large lake trapped at Makgadikgadi (or a tributary of it) was captured by the Middle Zambezi cutting back towards it, and emptied eastwards. The Upper Zambezi was captured as well. The Middle Zambezi was about 300 metres (980&nbsp;ft) lower than the Upper Zambezi, and a high waterfall formed at the edge of the basalt plateau across which the upper river flows. This was the first <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a>, somewhere down the Batoka Gorge near where Lake Kariba is now.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-8">[8]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Etymology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The first European to come across the Zambezi river was <a "/kiwi/Vasco_da_Gama" title="Vasco da Gama">Vasco da Gama</a>, in January 1498, who anchored at what he called <i><a "/w/index.php?title=Rio_dos_Bons_Sinais&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rio dos Bons Sinais (page does not exist)">Rio dos Bons Sinais</a></i> ("River of Good Omens"), now the <a "/kiwi/Quelimane" title="Quelimane">Quelimane</a> or Qu-Qua, a small river on the northern end of the delta, which at that time was connected by navigable channels to the Zambezi river proper (the connection silted up by the 1830s). In a few of the oldest maps, the entire river is denoted as such. But already by the early 1500s, a new name emerged, the <i>Cuama</i> river (sometimes "Quama" or "Zuama"). Cuama was the local name given by the dwellers of the <a "/kiwi/Swahili_Coast" class="mw-redirect" title="Swahili Coast">Swahili Coast</a> for an outpost located on one the southerly islands of the delta (near the Luabo channel). Most old nautical maps denote the Luabo entry as Cuama, the entire delta as the "rivers of Cuama" and the Zambezi river proper as the "Cuama River".</p>
<p>Nonetheless, already in 1552, Portuguese chronicler <a "/kiwi/Jo%C3%A3o_de_Barros" title="Joo de Barros">Joo de Barros</a> notes that the same Cuama river was called <i>Zembere</i> by the inland people of <a "/kiwi/Monomatapa" class="mw-redirect" title="Monomatapa">Monomatapa</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup> The Portuguese Dominican friar <a "/kiwi/Jo%C3%A3o_dos_Santos" title="Joo dos Santos">Joo dos Santos</a>, visiting Monomatapa in 1597, reported it as <i>Zambeze</i> (<a "/kiwi/Bantu_languages" title="Bantu languages">Bantu languages</a> frequently shifts between z and r) and inquired into the origins of the name; he was told it was named after a people.</p>
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Map by <a "/kiwi/Willem_Janszoon_Blaeu" class="mw-redirect" title="Willem Janszoon Blaeu">Willem Janszoon Blaeu</a>, dated 1635, showing the course of the Zambezi, and its source in a great lake.</div>
</div>
</div>
<blockquote class="templatequote">
<p>"The River Cuama is by them called Zambeze; the head whereof is so farre within Land that none of them know it, but by tradition of their Progenitors say it comes from a Lake in the midst of the continent which yeelds also other great Rivers, divers ways visiting the Sea. They call it Zambeze, of a Nation of Cafres dwelling neere that Lake which are so called." J. Santos <i>Ethiopia Oriental</i>, 1609<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>Thus the term "Zambezi" is after a people who live by a great lake to the north. The most likely candidates are the "M'biza", or <a "/w/index.php?title=Bisa_people&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Bisa people (page does not exist)">Bisa people</a> (in older texts given as Muisa, Movisa, Abisa, Ambios and other variations), a Bantu people who live in what is now central-eastern <a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a>, between the Zambezi River and <a "/kiwi/Lake_Bangweolo" class="mw-redirect" title="Lake Bangweolo">Lake Bangweolo</a> (at the time, before the <a "/kiwi/Kingdom_of_Lunda" title="Kingdom of Lunda">Lunda</a> invasion, the Bisa would have likely stretched further north, possibly to <a "/kiwi/Lake_Tanganyika" title="Lake Tanganyika">Lake Tanganyika</a>). The Bisa had a reputation as great cloth traders throughout the region.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup></p>
<p>In a curious note, the Goese-born Portuguese trader <a "/w/index.php?title=Manuel_Caetano_Pereira&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Manuel Caetano Pereira (page does not exist)">Manuel Caetano Pereira</a>, who traveled to the Bisa homelands in 1796 was surprised to be shown a second, separate river referred to as the "Zambezi".<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-12">[12]</a></sup> This "other Zambezi" that puzzled Pereira is most likely what modern sources spell the <a "/kiwi/Chambeshi_River" title="Chambeshi River">Chambeshi River</a> in northern Zambia.</p>
<p>The Monomatapa notion (reported by Santos) that the Zambezi was sourced from a great internal lake might be a reference to one of the <a "/kiwi/African_Great_Lakes" title="African Great Lakes">African Great Lakes</a>. One of the names reported by early explorers for <a "/kiwi/Lake_Malawi" title="Lake Malawi">Lake Malawi</a> was "Lake Zambre" (probably a corruption of "Zambezi"), possibly because Lake Malawi is connected to the lower Zambezi via the <a "/kiwi/Shire_River" title="Shire River">Shire River</a>. The Monomatapa story resonated with the old European notion, drawn from classical antiquity, that all the great African riversthe Nile, the Senegal, the Congo, now the Zambezi, toowere all sourced from the same great internal lake. The Portuguese were also told that the Mozambican Espirito Santo "river" (actually an estuary formed by the <a "/kiwi/Umbeluzi" class="mw-redirect" title="Umbeluzi">Umbeluzi</a>, <a "/kiwi/Matola" title="Matola">Matola</a> and <a "/kiwi/Tembe" class="mw-redirect" title="Tembe">Tembe</a> rivers) was sourced from a lake (hence its outlet became known as <a "/kiwi/Delagoa_Bay" class="mw-redirect" title="Delagoa Bay">Delagoa Bay</a>). As a result, several old maps depict the Zambezi and the "Espirito Santo" rivers converging deep in the interior, at the same lake.</p>
<p>However, the Bisa-derived etymology is not without dispute. In 1845, W.D. Cooley, examining Pereira's notes, concluded the term "Zambezi" derives not from the Bisa people, but rather from the Bantu term "mbege"/"mbeze" ("fish"), and consequently it probably means merely "river of fish".<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup> <a "/kiwi/David_Livingstone" title="David Livingstone">David Livingstone</a>, who reached the upper Zambezi in 1853, refers to it as "Zambesi" but also makes note of the local name "Leeambye" used by the <a "/kiwi/Lozi_people" title="Lozi people">Lozi people</a>, which he says means "large river or river par excellence". Livingstone records other names for the ZambeziLuambeji, Luambesi, Ambezi, Ojimbesi and Zambesiapplied by different peoples along its course, and asserts they "all possess a similar signification and express the native idea of this magnificent stream being the main drain of the country".<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup></p>
<p>In Portuguese records, the "Cuama River" term disappeared and gave way to the term "Sena River" (<i>Rio de Sena</i>), a reference to the Swahili (and later Portuguese) upriver trade station at <a "/kiwi/Vila_de_Sena" title="Vila de Sena">Sena</a>. In 1752, the Zambezi delta, under the name "Rivers of Sena" (<i>Rios de Sena</i>) formed a colonial administrative district of <a "/kiwi/Portuguese_Mozambique" title="Portuguese Mozambique">Portuguese Mozambique</a>. But common usage of "Zambezi" led eventually to a royal decree in 1858 officially renaming the district "<a "/kiwi/Zambezia_Province" title="Zambezia Province">Zambzia</a>".</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Exploration_of_the_river">Exploration of the river</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Exploration of the river">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
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Satellite showing <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a> and subsequent series of zigzagging gorges</div>
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<p>The Zambezi region was known to <a "/kiwi/Medieval" class="mw-redirect" title="Medieval">medieval</a> geographers as the <a "/kiwi/Empire_of_Monomotapa" class="mw-redirect" title="Empire of Monomotapa">Empire of Monomotapa</a>, and the course of the river, as well as the position of lakes <a "/kiwi/Lake_Ngami" title="Lake Ngami">Ngami</a> and <a "/kiwi/Lake_Nyasa" class="mw-redirect" title="Lake Nyasa">Nyasa</a>, were given broadly accurately in early maps. These were probably constructed from <a "/kiwi/Arab" class="mw-redirect" title="Arab">Arab</a> information.<sup id="cite_ref-EB1911_15-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-EB1911-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
<p>The first European to visit the inland Zambezi river was the Portuguese <a "/kiwi/Degredado" title="Degredado">degredado</a> <a "/kiwi/%C3%81lvaro_Fernandes" title="lvaro Fernandes">Antnio Fernandes</a> in 1511 and again in 1513, with the objective of reporting on commercial conditions and activities of the interior of <a "/kiwi/Central_Africa" title="Central Africa">Central Africa</a>. The final report of these explorations revealed the importance of the ports of the upper Zambezi to the local trade system, in particular to East African <a "/kiwi/Gold_trade" class="mw-redirect" title="Gold trade">gold trade</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup></p>
<p>The first exploration of the upper Zambezi was made by <a "/kiwi/David_Livingstone" title="David Livingstone">David Livingstone</a> in his exploration from <a "/kiwi/Bechuanaland" class="mw-redirect" title="Bechuanaland">Bechuanaland</a> between 1851 and 1853. Two or three years later he descended the Zambezi to its mouth and in the course of this journey discovered the <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a>. During 185860, accompanied by <a "/kiwi/John_Kirk_(explorer)" title="John Kirk (explorer)">John Kirk</a>, Livingstone ascended the river by the Kongone mouth as far as the Falls, and also traced the course of its tributary the Shire and reached <a "/kiwi/Lake_Malawi" title="Lake Malawi">Lake Malawi</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-EB1911_15-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-EB1911-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
<p>For the next 35 years very little exploration of the river took place. Portuguese explorer <a "/kiwi/Serpa_Pinto" class="mw-redirect" title="Serpa Pinto">Serpa Pinto</a> examined some of the western tributaries of the river and made measurements of the Victoria Falls in 1878.<sup id="cite_ref-EB1911_15-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-EB1911-15">[15]</a></sup> In 1884 the <a "/kiwi/Plymouth_Brethren" title="Plymouth Brethren">Plymouth Brethren</a> missionary <a "/kiwi/Frederick_Stanley_Arnot" title="Frederick Stanley Arnot">Frederick Stanley Arnot</a> traveled over the height of land between the watersheds of the Zambezi and the <a "/kiwi/Congo_River" title="Congo River">Congo</a>, and identified the source of the Zambezi.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-17">[17]</a></sup> He considered that the nearby high and cool <a "/kiwi/Kalene_Hill" title="Kalene Hill">Kalene Hill</a> was a particularly suitable place for a mission.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup> Arnot was accompanied by the Portuguese trader and army officer <a "/kiwi/Ant%C3%B3nio_da_Silva_Porto" title="Antnio da Silva Porto">Antnio da Silva Porto</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup> In 1889 the Chinde channel north of the main mouths of the river was discovered. Two expeditions led by Major <a "/w/index.php?title=A._St_Hill_Gibbons&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="A. St Hill Gibbons (page does not exist)">A. St Hill Gibbons</a> in 1895 to 1896 and 1898 to 1900 continued the work of exploration begun by Livingstone in the upper basin and central course of the river.<sup id="cite_ref-EB1911_15-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-EB1911-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
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Two local people in the Zambezi river near Victoria falls, Zambia.</div>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economy">Economy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Economy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The population of the Zambezi river valley is estimated to be about 32 million. About 80% of the population of the valley is dependent on <a "/kiwi/Agriculture" title="Agriculture">agriculture</a>, and the upper river's <a "/kiwi/Flood_plain" class="mw-redirect" title="Flood plain">flood plains</a> provide good agricultural land.</p>
<p>Communities by the river fish it extensively, and many people travel from far afield to fish. Some Zambian towns on roads leading to the river levy unofficial 'fish taxes' on people taking Zambezi fish to other parts of the country. As well as fishing for food, <a "/kiwi/Game_fishing" class="mw-redirect" title="Game fishing">game fishing</a> is a significant activity on some parts of the river. Between <a "/kiwi/Mongu" title="Mongu">Mongu</a> and <a "/kiwi/Livingstone,_Zambia" title="Livingstone, Zambia">Livingstone</a>, several <a "/kiwi/Safari" title="Safari">safari</a> lodges cater for <a "/kiwi/Tourist" class="mw-redirect" title="Tourist">tourists</a> who want to fish for exotic species, and many also catch fish to sell to <a "/kiwi/Public_aquarium" title="Public aquarium">aquaria</a>.</p>
<p>The river valley is rich in <a "/kiwi/Mineral" title="Mineral">mineral</a> deposits and <a "/kiwi/Fossil_fuel" title="Fossil fuel">fossil fuels</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Coal" title="Coal">coal</a> mining is important in places. The <a "/kiwi/Dam" title="Dam">dams</a> along its length also provide employment for many people near them, in maintaining the <a "/kiwi/Hydroelectric" class="mw-redirect" title="Hydroelectric">hydroelectric</a> power stations and the dams themselves. Several parts of the river are also very popular tourist destinations. Victoria Falls receives over 1.5 million visitors annually, while <a "/kiwi/Mana_Pools" class="mw-redirect" title="Mana Pools">Mana Pools</a> and <a "/kiwi/Lake_Kariba" title="Lake Kariba">Lake Kariba</a> also draw substantial tourist numbers.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Transport">Transport</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Transport">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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1975 photo of <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls_Bridge" title="Victoria Falls Bridge">Victoria Falls Bridge</a></div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The river is frequently interrupted by rapids and so has never been an important long-distance transport route. <a "/kiwi/David_Livingstone#Zambezi_expedition" title="David Livingstone">David Livingstone's Zambezi Expedition</a> attempted to open up the river to navigation by <a "/kiwi/Paddle_steamer" title="Paddle steamer">paddle steamer</a>, but was defeated by the <a "/w/index.php?title=Cahora_Bassa_rapids&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Cahora Bassa rapids (page does not exist)">Cahora Bassa rapids</a>. Along some stretches, it is often more convenient to travel by <a "/kiwi/Canoe" title="Canoe">canoe</a> along the river rather than on the unimproved roads which are often in very poor condition due to being regularly submerged in flood waters, and many small villages along the banks of the river are only accessible by boat. In the 1930s and 40s a paddle barge service operated on the stretch between the Katombora Rapids, about 50 kilometres (31&nbsp;mi) upstream from Livingstone, and the rapids just upstream from Katima Mulilo. However, depending on the water level, boats could be paddled through<a "/kiwi/Lozi_people" title="Lozi people">Lozi</a> paddlers, a dozen or more in a boat, could deal with most of themor they could be pulled along the shore or carried around the rapids, and teams of oxen pulled barges 5 kilometres (3.1&nbsp;mi) over land around the Ngonye Falls.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-20">[20]</a></sup></p>
<p>Road, rail and other crossings of the river, once few and far between, are proliferating. They are, in order from the source:</p>
<ul>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Cazombo&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Cazombo (page does not exist)">Cazombo</a> road bridge, <a "/kiwi/Angola" title="Angola">Angola</a>, bombed in the civil war and not yet reconstructed<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-21">[21]</a></sup></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Chinyingi" title="Chinyingi">Chinyingi suspension footbridge</a> near the town of <a "/kiwi/Zambezi,_Zambia" title="Zambezi, Zambia">Zambezi</a>, a 300-metre (980&nbsp;ft) footbridge built as a community project</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Katima_Mulilo_Bridge" title="Katima Mulilo Bridge">Katima Mulilo road bridge</a>, 900 metres (3,000&nbsp;ft), between <a "/kiwi/Namibia" title="Namibia">Namibia</a> and <a "/kiwi/Sesheke" title="Sesheke">Sesheke</a> in Zambia, opened 2004, completing the <a "/kiwi/Trans%E2%80%93Caprivi_Highway" class="mw-redirect" title="TransCaprivi Highway">TransCaprivi Highway</a> connecting <a "/kiwi/Lusaka" title="Lusaka">Lusaka</a> in Zambia with <a "/kiwi/Walvis_Bay" title="Walvis Bay">Walvis Bay</a> on the Atlantic coast</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kazungula_Ferry" title="Kazungula Ferry">Kazungula Bridge</a>in August 2007 a deal was announced to replace the Kazungula Ferry, one of the largest river ferries in Southern Africa, with a road bridge where the river is 430 metres (1,410&nbsp;ft) wide</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls_Bridge" title="Victoria Falls Bridge">Victoria Falls Bridge</a> (road and rail), the first to be built, completed in April 1905 and initially intended as a link in <a "/kiwi/Cecil_Rhodes" title="Cecil Rhodes">Cecil Rhodes</a>' scheme to build a <a "/kiwi/Cape-Cairo_railway" class="mw-redirect" title="Cape-Cairo railway">railway from Cape Town to Cairo</a>: 250 metres (820&nbsp;ft) long</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba Dam</a> carries the paved <a "/kiwi/Kariba,_Zimbabwe" title="Kariba, Zimbabwe">Kariba</a>/<a "/kiwi/Siavonga" title="Siavonga">Siavonga</a> highway across the river</li>
</ul>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Luangwa_boat.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Luangwa_boat.jpg/220px-Luangwa_boat.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Luangwa_boat.jpg/330px-Luangwa_boat.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Luangwa_boat.jpg/440px-Luangwa_boat.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4181" data-file-height="2763" width="220" height="145"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Luangwa_boat.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Tourist boat on the Zambezi River, <a "/kiwi/Mosi-oa-Tunya_National_Park" title="Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park">Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park</a>, Zambia. 1971 photo.</div>
</div>
</div>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Otto_Beit_Bridge" class="mw-redirect" title="Otto Beit Bridge">Otto Beit Bridge at Chirundu</a>, road, 382 metres (1,253&nbsp;ft), 1939</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Chirundu_Bridge#Second_Chirundu_Bridge_.282002.29" title="Chirundu Bridge">Second Chirundu Bridge</a>, road, 400 metres (1,300&nbsp;ft), 2002</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cahora_Bassa_Dam" title="Cahora Bassa Dam">Cahora Bassa Dam</a> is in a remote area and does not carry a highway across the river</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Tete,_Mozambique" title="Tete, Mozambique">Tete Suspension Bridge</a>, 1-kilometre (1,000&nbsp;m) road bridge (1970s)</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Dona_Ana_Bridge" title="Dona Ana Bridge">Dona Ana Bridge</a>, originally railway but converted to single-lane road, (1935), the longest at 3 kilometres (1.9&nbsp;mi), since late 2009 it is again a railway bridge, passenger and freight trains are again running across it and from 2011 on the railway line over this bridge may convey several million of tonnes of Tete coal to the port of Beira.</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Caia,_Mozambique" title="Caia, Mozambique">Caia Bridge</a>construction started in 2007 of a 2.3-kilometre (1.4&nbsp;mi) road bridge to replace the Caia ferry, which, with Kazungula, is the largest ferry across the river</li>
</ul>
<p>There are a number of small <a "/kiwi/Pontoon_(boat)" title="Pontoon (boat)">pontoon</a> ferries across the river in Angola, western Zambia, and Mozambique, notably between <a "/kiwi/Mongu" title="Mongu">Mongu</a> and <a "/kiwi/Kalabo" title="Kalabo">Kalabo</a>. Above Mongu in years following poor rainy seasons the river can be forded at one or two places. In tourist areas, such as <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls" title="Victoria Falls">Victoria Falls</a> and <a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba</a>, short-distance tourist boats take visitors along the river.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Ecology">Ecology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Ecology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg/220px-STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg/330px-STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg/440px-STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg 2x" data-file-width="442" data-file-height="434" width="220" height="216"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:STS51B-51-14-_Lake_Cahora_Bassa.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
<a "/kiwi/Lake_Cahora_Bassa" class="mw-redirect" title="Lake Cahora Bassa">Lake Cahora Bassa</a> in Mozambique, one of the river's major sources of hydroelectric energy</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Sewage <a "/kiwi/Effluent" title="Effluent">effluent</a> is a major cause of water <a "/kiwi/Pollution" title="Pollution">pollution</a> around urban areas, as inadequate water treatment facilities in all the major cities of the region force them to release untreated sewage into the river. This has resulted in <a "/kiwi/Eutrophication" title="Eutrophication">eutrophication</a> of the river water and has facilitated the spread of diseases of poor <a "/kiwi/Hygiene" title="Hygiene">hygiene</a> such as <a "/kiwi/Cholera" title="Cholera">cholera</a>, <a "/kiwi/Typhus" title="Typhus">typhus</a> and <a "/kiwi/Dysentery" title="Dysentery">dysentery</a>.</p>
<p>The construction of two major dams regulating the flow of the river has had a major effect on wildlife and human populations in the lower Zambezi region. When the Cahora Bassa Dam was completed in 1973, its managers allowed it to fill in a single flood season, going against recommendations to fill over at least two years. The drastic reduction in the flow of the river led to a 40% reduction in the coverage of <a "/kiwi/Mangrove" title="Mangrove">mangroves</a>, greatly increased <a "/kiwi/Erosion" title="Erosion">erosion</a> of the coastal region and a 60% reduction in the catch of <a "/kiwi/Prawn" title="Prawn">prawns</a> off the mouth due to the reduction in emplacement of <a "/kiwi/Silt" title="Silt">silt</a> and associate <a "/kiwi/Nutrient" title="Nutrient">nutrients</a>. <a "/kiwi/Wetland" title="Wetland">Wetland</a> <a "/kiwi/Ecosystem" title="Ecosystem">ecosystems</a> downstream of the dam shrank considerably. Wildlife in the delta was further threatened by uncontrolled hunting during the civil war in Mozambique.</p>
<p>The <a "/kiwi/Kavango%E2%80%93Zambezi_Transfrontier_Conservation_Area" title="KavangoZambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area">KavangoZambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area</a> will cover parts of Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Botswana, including the famous Okavango Delta in Botswana and Mosi-oa-Tunya (The Smoke That Thunders, or Victoria Falls). It is thought that the cross-border park will help with animal migration routes and assist in the preservation of wetlands which clean water, as sewage from communities is a problem.</p>
<p>Funding was boosted for cross-border conservation along the Zambezi in 2008. The KavangoZambezi Transfrontier Conservation projectwhich follows the Zambezi River and stretches across Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwehas received a grant of 8 million from a German nongovernmental organisation. Part of the funds will be used for research in areas covered by the project. However, Angola has warned that landmines from their civil war may impede the project.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-22">[22]</a></sup></p>
<p>The river currently passes through <a "/kiwi/Ngonye_Falls_National_Park" class="mw-redirect" title="Ngonye Falls National Park">Ngonye Falls National Park</a>, <a "/kiwi/Mosi-oa-Tunya_National_Park" title="Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park">Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Lower_Zambezi_National_Park" title="Lower Zambezi National Park">Lower Zambezi National Park</a> (in Zambia), and <a "/kiwi/Zambezi_National_Park" title="Zambezi National Park">Zambezi National Park</a>, <a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls_National_Park" title="Victoria Falls National Park">Victoria Falls National Park</a>, <a "/kiwi/Matusadona_National_Park" title="Matusadona National Park">Matusadona National Park</a>, <a "/kiwi/Mana_Pools_National_Park" title="Mana Pools National Park">Mana Pools National Park</a>, and the <a "/kiwi/Middle_Zambezi_Biosphere_Reserve" title="Middle Zambezi Biosphere Reserve">Middle Zambezi Biosphere Reserve</a> (in Zimbabwe).</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="EUS_outbreak">EUS outbreak</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: EUS outbreak">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>On 14 September 2007, <a "/kiwi/Epizootic" title="Epizootic">epizootic</a> <a "/kiwi/Ulcer_(dermatology)" title="Ulcer (dermatology)">ulcerative</a> syndrome (EUS) killed hundreds of sore-covered fish in the river. <a "/kiwi/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a> Agriculture Minister Ben Kapita asked experts to investigate the outbreak to probe the cause to find out if the disease can be transmitted to humans.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-23">[23]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Major_towns">Major towns</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Major towns">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Along much of the river's length, the population is sparse, but important towns and cities along its course include the following:</p>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Katima_Mulilo" title="Katima Mulilo">Katima Mulilo</a> (Namibia)</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Mongu" title="Mongu">Mongu</a>, <a "/kiwi/Lukulu" title="Lukulu">Lukulu</a>, <a "/kiwi/Livingstone,_Zambia" title="Livingstone, Zambia">Livingstone</a> and <a "/kiwi/Sesheke" title="Sesheke">Sesheke</a> (Zambia)</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Victoria_Falls,_Zimbabwe" title="Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe">Victoria Falls</a> and <a "/kiwi/Kariba_Dam" title="Kariba Dam">Kariba</a> (Zimbabwe)</li>
<li><a "/w/index.php?title=Songo,_Mozambique&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Songo, Mozambique (page does not exist)">Songo</a> and <a "/kiwi/Tete" class="mw-redirect" title="Tete">Tete</a> (Mozambique)</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/2/21/Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg/25px-Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg" class="noviewer" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/2/21/Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg/37px-Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/2/21/Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg/50px-Africa_satellite_orthographic.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1624" data-file-height="1824" width="25" height="28"></span><span style="display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle"><a "/kiwi/Portal:Africa" title="Portal:Africa">Africa portal</a></span></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/2007_Mozambican_flood" title="2007 Mozambican flood">2007 Mozambican flood</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Nyami_Nyami" title="Nyami Nyami">Nyami Nyami</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Zambezian_flooded_grasslands" title="Zambezian flooded grasslands">Zambezian flooded grasslands</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-Beilfuss-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Beilfuss_1-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://files.gorongosa.net/filestore/348-patterns_hydrological_change_zambezi_delta.pdf">Richard Beilfuss &amp; David dos Santos: Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Monogram for the Sustainable Management of Cahora Bassa Dam and The Lower Zambezi Valley (2001). Estimated mean flow rate 3424 m/s</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20081217180850/http://files.gorongosa.net/filestore/348-patterns_hydrological_change_zambezi_delta.pdf">Archived</a> 17 December 2008 at the <a "/kiwi/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-INBO-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-INBO_2-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-INBO_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-INBO_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.riobencarta2018.ga/transfrontalier/Bilanglobal.PDF">International Network of Basin Organisations/Office International de L'eau:</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20090327102256/http://www.riobencarta2018.ga/transfrontalier/Bilanglobal.PDF">Archived</a> 27 March 2009 at the <a "/kiwi/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. "Dvelopper les Comptences pour mieux Grer l'Eau: Fleuves Transfrontaliers Africains: Bilan Global." (2002). Estimated annual discharge 106 km<sup>3</sup>, equal to mean flow rate 3360 m<sup>3</sup>/s</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-3"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20150904101922/http://www.muvitv.com/dilapidated-zambezi-source-site-worry-ikelenge-dc/">"Dilapidated Zambezi Source Site Worry Ikelenge DC"</a>. <i>muvitv.com</i>. Muvi TV. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.muvitv.com/dilapidated-zambezi-source-site-worry-ikelenge-dc/">the original</a> on 4 September 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 August</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.atitle=Dilapidated+Zambezi+Source+Site+Worry+Ikelenge+DC&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=muvitv.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.muvitv.com%2Fdilapidated-zambezi-source-site-worry-ikelenge-dc%2F&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-4"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.birdlifeencarta2018.ga/datazone/sitefactsheet.php?id=7178">"ZM002 Source of the Zambezi"</a>. <i>birdlifeencarta2018.ga</i>. Birdlife International<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 August</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.atitle=ZM002+Source+of+the+Zambezi&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=birdlifeencarta2018.ga&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.birdlifeencarta2018.ga%2Fdatazone%2Fsitefactsheet.php%3Fid%3D7178&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Dorling-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Dorling_5-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Dorling Kindersley, pp. 8485</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-6"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://earthobservatory.nasa.tits/IOTD/view.php?id=82361">NASA - Zambezi</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-7"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.gorongosa.net/research/research_documents/Patterns_Hydrological_Change_Zambezi_Delta.pdf">Richard Beilfuss &amp; David dos Santos: Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique.</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20080102105856/http://www.gorongosa.net/research/research_documents/Patterns_Hydrological_Change_Zambezi_Delta.pdf">Archived</a> 2 January 2008 at the <a "/kiwi/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. Working Paper No 2 Program for the Sustainable Management of Cahora Bassa Dam and The Lower Zambezi Valley (2001)</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-8"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.zamsocencarta2018.ga/documents/Summary%20of%20Technical%20Reviews%20Part%202.pdf">AWF Four Corners Biodiversity Information Package No 2: Summary of Technical Reviews</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20120217063008/http://www.zamsocencarta2018.ga/documents/Summary%20of%20Technical%20Reviews%20Part%202.pdf">Archived</a> 17 February 2012 at the <a "/kiwi/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. Accessed 1 March 2007.(dead link)</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-9"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Barros, <i>Da Asia</i>, Dec. I, Lib. X, vol. 2, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=BJ42AAAAMAAJ&amp;pg=PA374#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">p.374</a>)</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-10"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Fr. J. dos Santos (1609), <i>Ethiopia Oriental e varia historia de cousas Notaveis do Oriente</i>, Pt. III. English translation is from <a "/kiwi/Samuel_Purchas" title="Samuel Purchas">Samuel Purchas</a>'s 1625 <i>Haklyutus Posthumus</i>, (1905) ed., Glasgow, vol. 10: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=ekIMAAAAIAAJ&amp;pg=PA220#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">p.220-21</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-11"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The connection between Santos/Monomatapa "Zambezi" and the "M'biza" is suggested in Cooley (1845).</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-12"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Notcias dadas por Manoel Caetano Pereira, comerciante, que se entranhou pelo interior da frica", as published in Jos Acrsio das Neves (1830) <i>Consideraes Polticas e Comerciais sobre os Descobrimentos e Possesses na frica e na sia</i>. Lisbon: Imprensa Regia. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=01Tpl2WqoqgC&amp;pg=PA373#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">p.373</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-13"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">W.D. Cooley (1845) "The Geography of N'yassi, or the Great Lake of Southern Africa, investigated, with an account of the overland route from the Quanza in Angola to the Zambezi in the government of Mozambique", <i>Journal of the Royal Geographical Society</i>, p.185-235.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-14"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">David Livingstone (1857) <i>Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa</i> (<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=Sc0TAAAAYAAJ&amp;pg=PA208#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">p.208</a>)</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-EB1911-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-EB1911_15-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-EB1911_15-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-EB1911_15-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-EB1911_15-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "/kiwi/File:Kiwisource-logo.svg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Kiwisource-logo.svg/12px-Kiwisource-logo.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Kiwisource-logo.svg/18px-Kiwisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Kiwisource-logo.svg/24px-Kiwisource-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="410" data-file-height="430" width="12" height="13"></a>&nbsp;One or more of the preceding sentences&nbsp;incorporates text from a publication now in the <a "/kiwi/Public_domain" title="Public domain">public domain</a>:&nbsp;<cite id="CITEREFCana1911" class="citation encyclopaedia">Cana, Frank (1911). "<a "en.kiwisourceencarta2018.ga/kiwi/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Zambezi" class="extiw" title="kiwisource:1911 Encyclopdia Britannica/Zambezi">Zambezi</a>". In Chisholm, Hugh. <i><a "/kiwi/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition" title="Encyclopdia Britannica Eleventh Edition">Encyclopdia Britannica</a></i>. <b>28</b> (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp.&nbsp;951953.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.atitle=Zambezi&amp;rft.aufirst=Frank&amp;rft.aulast=Cana&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&amp;rft.date=1911&amp;rft.edition=11th&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.pages=951-953&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-16"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Newitt, Malyn (2005). <i>A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400-1668</i>. Routlege. p.&nbsp;81. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-203-32404-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-203-32404-8">0-203-32404-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.aufirst=Malyn&amp;rft.aulast=Newitt&amp;rft.btitle=A+History+of+Portuguese+Overseas+Expansion%2C+1400-1668&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-203-32404-8&amp;rft.pages=81&amp;rft.pub=Routlege&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-17"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFHoward2005" class="citation web">Howard, Dr. J. Keir (2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.dacbencarta2018.ga/stories/demrepcongo/arnot_stanley.html">"Arnot, Frederick Stanley"</a>. <i>Dictionary of African Christian Biography</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 December</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.atitle=Arnot%2C+Frederick+Stanley&amp;rft.aufirst=Dr.+J.+Keir&amp;rft.aulast=Howard&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Dictionary+of+African+Christian+Biography&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dacbencarta2018.ga%2Fstories%2Fdemrepcongo%2Farnot_stanley.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-18"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFPritchett2007" class="citation book">Pritchett, James Anthony (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.ca/books?id=q0Avs0RFRtMC&amp;pg=PA29"><i>Friends for life, friends for death: cohorts and consciousness among the Lunda-Ndembu</i></a>. University of Virginia Press. pp.&nbsp;2931. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-8139-2624-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-8139-2624-6">0-8139-2624-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.aufirst=James+Anthony&amp;rft.aulast=Pritchett&amp;rft.btitle=Friends+for+life%2C+friends+for+death%3A+cohorts+and+consciousness+among+the+Lunda-Ndembu&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-8139-2624-6&amp;rft.pages=29-31&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Virginia+Press&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dq0Avs0RFRtMC%26pg%3DPA29&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-19"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFFishFish2001" class="citation book">Fish, Bruce; Fish, Becky Durost (2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.ca/books?id=0lMZovHqD4kC&amp;pg=PA30"><i>Angola, 1880 to the present: slavery, exploitation, and revolt</i></a>. Infobase Publishing. p.&nbsp;30. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-7910-6197-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-7910-6197-3">0-7910-6197-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.au=Fish%2C+Becky+Durost&amp;rft.aufirst=Bruce&amp;rft.aulast=Fish&amp;rft.btitle=Angola%2C+1880+to+the+present%3A+slavery%2C+exploitation%2C+and+revolt&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-7910-6197-3&amp;rft.pages=30&amp;rft.pub=Infobase+Publishing&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D0lMZovHqD4kC%26pg%3DPA30&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-20"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.nrzamencarta2018.ga.uk/NRJ/V1N2/V1N2.htm">(On www.nrzamencarta2018.ga.uk website accessed 26 February)</a> E. C. Mills: "Overlanding Cattle from Barotse to Angola", <i>The Northern Rhodesia Journal</i>, Vol 1 No 2, pp 5363 (1950).</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-21"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Visible on Google Earth at latitude -11.906 longitude 22.831.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-22"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html">"Funding boost for cross-border conservation project"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.btitle=Funding+boost+for+cross-border+conservation+project&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scidev.net%2Fen%2Fsub-suharan-africa%2Fnews%2Fsub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-23"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20090122212855/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmafp/is_200709/ai_n19522812">"Zambia warns against fish killed by mysterious disease"</a>. AFP. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmafp/is_200709/ai_n19522812">the original</a> on 22 January 2009.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.atitle=Zambia+warns+against+fish+killed+by+mysterious+disease&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffindarticles.com%2Fp%2Farticles%2Fmi_kmafp%2Fis_200709%2Fai_n19522812&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul>
<li>Bento C.M., Beilfuss R. (2003), <i>Wattled Cranes, Waterbirds, and Wetland Conservation in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique</i>, report for the Biodiversity Foundation for Africa for the IUCN - Regional Office for Southern Africa: Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project.</li>
<li>Bourgeois S., Kocher T., Schelander P. (2003), <i>Case study: Zambezi river basin</i>, ETH Seminar: Science and Politics of International Freshwater Management 2003/04</li>
<li>Davies B.R., Beilfuss R., Thoms M.C. (2000), "Cahora Bassa retrospective, 19741997: effects of flow regulation on the Lower Zambezi River," <i>Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnologie</i>, 27, 19</li>
<li>Dunham KM (1994), <i>The effect of drought on the large mammal populations of Zambezi riverine woodlands</i>, Journal of Zoology, v. 234, p.&nbsp;489526</li>
<li>Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. (2004). <i>World reference atlas</i>. New York: Dorling Kindersley. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-7566-0481-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-7566-0481-8">0-7566-0481-8</a></li>
<li>Wynn S. (2002), "The Zambezi River - Wilderness and Tourism", <i>International Journal of Wilderness</i>, 8, 34.</li>
<li>H. C. N. Ridley: Early History of Road Transport in Northern Rhodesia, <i>The Northern Rhodesia Journal</i>, Vol 2 No 5 (1954)<i>Re Zambezi River Transport Service at Katombora</i>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html">Funding boost for cross-border conservation project</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Zambezi&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist">encarta2018.ga Commons has media related to <i><b><a "commons.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwi/Category:Zambezi" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Zambezi">Zambezi</a></b></i>.</td>
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<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20041027222139/http://www.earthtrends.wriencarta2018.ga/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=310&amp;theme=2">Information and a map of the Zambezi's watershed</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.zambezi-expeditionencarta2018.ga/index.html">Zambezi Expedition - Fighting Malaria on the "River of Life"</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.zarahoencarta2018.ga.zm/">"Home Page"</a>. <a "/kiwi/Zambezi_River_Authority" title="Zambezi River Authority">Zambezi River Authority</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-09-23</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AZambezi&amp;rft.btitle=Home+Page&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=Zambezi+River+Authority&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zarahoencarta2018.ga.zm%2F&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.zamsocencarta2018.ga/">The Zambezi Society</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/publications/register/s/africa.gif">Map of Africa's river basins</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.ppl.nl/bibliographies/all/?bibliography=water">Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law</a> Peace Palace Library</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20070828065809/http://www.natureencarta2018.ga/wherewework/greatrivers/africa/">The Nature Conservancy's Great Rivers Partnership works to conserve the Zambezi River</a></li>
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<div id="Rivers_of_Angola" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a "/kiwi/List_of_rivers_of_Angola" title="List of rivers of Angola">Rivers</a> of <a "/kiwi/Angola" title="Angola">Angola</a></div>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Chiloango_River" title="Chiloango River">Chiloango</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Congo_River" title="Congo River">Congo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cuando_River" title="Cuando River">Cuando</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cuanza_River" title="Cuanza River">Cuanza</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cunene_River" title="Cunene River">Cunene</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kasai_River" title="Kasai River">Kasai</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Kwango_River" title="Kwango River">Kwango</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luanginga_River" title="Luanginga River">Luanginga</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Lucala_River" title="Lucala River">Lucala</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luena_River,_Angola" title="Luena River, Angola">Luena</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Lungwebungu_River" title="Lungwebungu River">Lungwebungu</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Okavango_River" title="Okavango River">Okavango</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Rio_Quicombo" title="Rio Quicombo">Rio Quicombo</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Zambezi</a></li>
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<div id="Rivers_of_Mozambique" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a "/kiwi/List_of_rivers_of_Mozambique" title="List of rivers of Mozambique">Rivers</a> of <a "/kiwi/Mozambique" title="Mozambique">Mozambique</a></div>
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<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a "/kiwi/List_of_rivers_of_Mozambique" title="List of rivers of Mozambique">Rivers</a></th>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Buzi_River" title="Buzi River">Buzi</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Chinde_River" title="Chinde River">Chinde</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Komati_River" title="Komati River">Komati</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Licungo_River" title="Licungo River">Licungo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Limpopo_River" title="Limpopo River">Limpopo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Luambala_River" title="Luambala River">Luambala</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Lugenda_River" title="Lugenda River">Lugenda</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/L%C3%BArio_River" title="Lrio River">Lrio</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Maputo_River" title="Maputo River">Maputo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Mazowe_River" title="Mazowe River">Mazowe</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Megaruma_River" title="Megaruma River">Megaruma</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Messalo_River" title="Messalo River">Messalo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Mocub%C3%BAri_River" title="Mocubri River">Mocubri</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Monapo_River" title="Monapo River">Monapo</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Montepuez_River" title="Montepuez River">Montepuez</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Ngalamu_River" title="Ngalamu River">Ngalamu<