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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Toru Takemitsu</h1>
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<p><b>Toru Takemitsu</b> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"> </span><span style="display:none">,</span> <i>Takemitsu Tru</i>, October 8, 1930 February 20, 1996)</span> <small>pronounced&nbsp;</small><span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a "/kiwi/Help:IPA_for_Japanese" title="Help:IPA for Japanese">[takemits to]</a></span> was a Japanese <a "/kiwi/Composer" title="Composer">composer</a> and writer on <a "/kiwi/Aesthetics" title="Aesthetics">aesthetics</a> and <a "/kiwi/Music_theory" title="Music theory">music theory</a>. Largely self-taught, Takemitsu possessed consummate skill in the subtle manipulation of instrumental and orchestral <a "/kiwi/Timbre" title="Timbre">timbre</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> He is famed for combining elements of oriental and occident philosophy to create a sound uniquely his own, and for fusing opposites together such as sound with silence and tradition with innovation.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_3-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-allmusic.com-3">[3]</a></sup></p>
<p>He composed several hundred independent works of music, scored more than ninety films and published twenty books.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_3-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-allmusic.com-3">[3]</a></sup> He was also a founding member of the <i>Jikken Kobo</i> (experimental workshop) in Japan, a group of avant-garde artists who distanced themselves from <a "/kiwi/Academia" class="mw-redirect" title="Academia">academia</a> and whose collaborative work is often regarded among the most influential of the 20th century.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup></p>
<p>His 1957 <i>Requiem</i> for string orchestra attracted international attention, led to several commissions from across the world and established his reputation as one of the leading 20th-century Japanese composers.<sup id="cite_ref-oxfdict_6-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-oxfdict-6">[6]</a></sup> He was the recipient of numerous awards and honours<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-wilson_8-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-wilson-8">[8]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-oxfcomp_9-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-oxfcomp-9">[9]</a></sup> and the <a "/kiwi/Toru_Takemitsu_Composition_Award" title="Toru Takemitsu Composition Award">Toru Takemitsu Composition Award</a> is named after him.<sup id="cite_ref-p-ttca_10-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-p-ttca-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
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<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a "#Biography"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Biography</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a "#Youth"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Youth</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a "#Early_development_and_Jikken_K.C5.8Db.C5.8D"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Early development and Jikken Kb</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a "#Influence_of_Cage.3B_interest_in_traditional_Japanese_music"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Influence of Cage; interest in traditional Japanese music</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a "#International_status_and_the_gradual_shift_in_style"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">International status and the gradual shift in style</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a "#Later_works:_the_sea_of_tonality"><span class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Later works: the sea of tonality</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a "#Legacy"><span class="tocnumber">1.6</span> <span class="toctext">Legacy</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a "#Music"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Music</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a "#Influence_of_traditional_Japanese_music"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Influence of traditional Japanese music</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a "#Influence_of_Messiaen"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Influence of Messiaen</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a "#Influence_of_Debussy"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Influence of Debussy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a "#Motives"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Motives</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a "#Musique_concr.C3.A8te"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Musique concrte</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a "#Aleatory_techniques"><span class="tocnumber">2.6</span> <span class="toctext">Aleatory techniques</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a "#Film_music"><span class="tocnumber">2.7</span> <span class="toctext">Film music</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a "#Awards"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Awards</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a "#Notable_compositions"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Notable compositions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a "#Literary_works"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Literary works</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a "#Listening"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Listening</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a "#Notes_and_references"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Notes and references</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a "#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a "#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Biography">Biography</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Biography">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Youth">Youth</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Youth">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Takemitsu was born in <a "/kiwi/Tokyo" title="Tokyo">Tokyo</a> on October 8, 1930; a month later his family moved to <a "/kiwi/Dalian" title="Dalian">Dalian</a> in the Chinese province of <a "/kiwi/Liaoning" title="Liaoning">Liaoning</a>. In 1938 he returned to Japan to attend elementary school, but his education was cut short by military conscription in 1944.<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> Takemitsu described his experience of military service at such a young age, under the Japanese Nationalist government, as "… extremely bitter".<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup> Takemitsu first became really conscious of <a "/kiwi/Classical_music" title="Classical music">Western classical music</a> during his term of military service, in the form of a popular French Song ("<a "/kiwi/Parlez-moi_d%27amour_(song)" title="Parlez-moi d'amour (song)">Parlez-moi d'amour</a>") which he listened to with colleagues in secret, played on a gramophone with a makeshift needle fashioned from bamboo.<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-12">[12]</a></sup></p>
<p>During the post-war U.S. occupation of Japan, Takemitsu worked for the U.S. Armed Forces, but was ill for a long period. Hospitalised and bed-ridden, he took the opportunity to listen to as much Western music as he could on the U.S. Armed Forces network. While deeply affected by these experiences of Western music, he simultaneously felt a need to distance himself from the traditional music of his native Japan. He explained much later, in a lecture at the New York International Festival of the Arts, that for him Japanese traditional music "always recalled the bitter memories of war".<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup></p>
<p>Despite his almost complete lack of musical training, and taking inspiration from what little Western music he had heard, Takemitsu began to compose in earnest at the age of 16: "… I began [writing] music attracted to music itself as one human being. Being in music I found my raison d'tre as a man. After the war, music was the <i>only</i> thing. Choosing to be in music clarified my identity."<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup> Though he studied briefly with <a "/kiwi/Yasuji_Kiyose" title="Yasuji Kiyose">Yasuji Kiyose</a> beginning in 1948, Takemitsu remained largely self-taught throughout his musical career.<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_development_and_Jikken_K.C5.8Db.C5.8D">Early development and Jikken Kb</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Early development and Jikken Kb">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1948, Takemitsu conceived the idea of <a "/kiwi/Electronic_music" title="Electronic music">electronic music</a> <a "/kiwi/Music_technology" title="Music technology">technology</a>, or in his own words, to "bring noise into tempered musical tones inside a busy small tube." During the 1950s, Takemitsu had learned that in 1948 "a French [engineer] <a "/kiwi/Pierre_Schaeffer" title="Pierre Schaeffer">Pierre Schaeffer</a> invented the method(s) of <i><a "/kiwi/Musique_concr%C3%A8te" title="Musique concrte">musique concrte</a></i> based on the same idea as mine. I was pleased with this coincidence."<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
<p>In 1951, Takemitsu was a founding member of the anti-academic <i><a "/w/index.php?title=Jikken_K%C5%8Db%C5%8D&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Jikken Kb (page does not exist)">Jikken Kb</a></i> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"></span><span style="display:none">,</span> <i>"experimental workshop"</i>)</span>: an artistic group established for multidisciplinary collaboration on mixed-media projects, who sought to avoid Japanese artistic tradition.<sup id="cite_ref-burtreviewcam_16-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-burtreviewcam-16">[16]</a></sup> The performances and works undertaken by the group introduced several contemporary Western composers to Japanese audiences.<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-17">[17]</a></sup> During this period he wrote <i>Saegirarenai Kysoku I</i> ("Uninterrupted Rest I", 1952: a piano work, without a regular rhythmic pulse or barlines); and by 1955 Takemitsu had begun to use electronic <a "/kiwi/Tape_recorder" title="Tape recorder">tape-recording</a> techniques in such works as <i>Relief Statique</i> (1955) and <i>Vocalism AI</i> (1956).<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> Takemitsu also studied in the early 1950s with the composer <a "/kiwi/Fumio_Hayasaka" title="Fumio Hayasaka">Fumio Hayasaka</a>, perhaps best known for the scores he wrote for films by <a "/kiwi/Kenji_Mizoguchi" title="Kenji Mizoguchi">Kenji Mizoguchi</a> and <a "/kiwi/Akira_Kurosawa" title="Akira Kurosawa">Akira Kurosawa</a>, the latter of whom Takemitsu would collaborate with decades later.</p>
<p>In the late 1950s chance brought Takemitsu international attention: his <i>Requiem</i> for string orchestra (1957 <span class="unicode haudio"><span class="fn"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_requiem.ogg" title="About this sound"><img alt="About this sound" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/11px-Loudspeaker.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/17px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/22px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" width="11" height="11"></a>&nbsp;</span><a "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/3/36/Takemitsu_requiem.ogg" class="internal" title="Takemitsu requiem.ogg">listen</a></span>&nbsp;<small class="metadata audiolinkinfo" style="cursor:help;">(<a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Media_help" title="encarta2018.ga:Media help"><span style="cursor:help;">help</span></a><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_requiem.ogg" title="File:Takemitsu requiem.ogg"><span style="cursor:help;">info</span></a>)</small></span>), written as an homage to Hayasaka, was heard by <a "/kiwi/Igor_Stravinsky" title="Igor Stravinsky">Igor Stravinsky</a> in 1958 during his visit to Japan. (The <a "/kiwi/NHK" title="NHK">NHK</a> had organised opportunities for Stravinsky to listen to some of the latest Japanese music; when Takemitsu's work was put on by mistake, Stravinsky insisted on hearing it to the end.) At a press conference later, Stravinsky expressed his admiration for the work, praising its "sincerity" and "passionate" writing.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup> Stravinsky subsequently invited Takemitsu to lunch; and for Takemitsu this was an "unforgettable" experience.<sup id="cite_ref-afterword_19-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-afterword-19">[19]</a></sup> After Stravinsky returned to the U.S., Takemitsu soon received a commission for a new work from the <a "/kiwi/Sergei_Koussevitzky#Legacy" class="mw-redirect" title="Sergei Koussevitzky">Koussevitsky Foundation</a> which, he assumed, had come as a suggestion from Stravinsky to <a "/kiwi/Aaron_Copland" title="Aaron Copland">Aaron Copland</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-afterword_19-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-afterword-19">[19]</a></sup> For this he composed <i>Dorian Horizon</i>, (1966), which was premired by the <a "/kiwi/San_Francisco_Symphony_Orchestra" class="mw-redirect" title="San Francisco Symphony Orchestra">San Francisco Symphony Orchestra</a>, conducted by Copland.<sup id="cite_ref-afterword_19-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-afterword-19">[19]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Influence_of_Cage.3B_interest_in_traditional_Japanese_music">Influence of Cage; interest in traditional Japanese music</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Influence of Cage; interest in traditional Japanese music">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>During his time with Jikken Kb, Takemitsu came into contact with the experimental work of <a "/kiwi/John_Cage" title="John Cage">John Cage</a>; but when the composer <a "/kiwi/Toshi_Ichiyanagi" title="Toshi Ichiyanagi">Toshi Ichiyanagi</a> returned from his studies in America in 1961, he gave the first Japanese performance of Cage's <i>Concert for Piano and Orchestra</i>. This left a "deep impression" on Takemitsu: he recalled the impact of hearing the work when writing an obituary for Cage, 31 years later.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-20">[20]</a></sup> This encouraged Takemitsu in his use of indeterminate procedures and graphic-score notation, for example in the graphic scores of <i>Ring</i> (1961), <i><a "/kiwi/Corona_(Takemitsu)" title="Corona (Takemitsu)">Corona for pianist(s)</a></i> and <i>Corona&nbsp;II for string(s)</i> (both 1962). In these works each performer is presented with cards printed with coloured circular patterns which are freely arranged by the performer to create "the score".<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-21">[21]</a></sup></p>
<p>Although the immediate influence of Cage's procedures did not last in Takemitsu's music<i>Coral Island</i>, for example for soprano and orchestra (1962) shows significant departures from indeterminate procedures partly as a result of Takemitsu's renewed interest in the music of <a "/kiwi/Anton_Webern" title="Anton Webern">Anton Webern</a>certain similarities between Cage's philosophies and Takemitsu's thought remained. For example, Cage's emphasis on timbres within individual sound-events, and his notion of silence "as plenum rather than vacuum", can be aligned with Takemitsu's interest in <i>ma</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-22">[22]</a></sup> Furthermore, Cage's interest in Zen practice (through his contact with Zen scholar <a "/kiwi/Daisetz_Teitaro_Suzuki" class="mw-redirect" title="Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki">Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki</a>) seems to have resulted in a renewed interest in the East in general, and ultimately alerted Takemitsu to the potential for incorporating elements drawn from Japanese traditional music into his composition:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>I must express my deep and sincere gratitude to John Cage. The reason for this is that in my own life, in my own development, for a long period I struggled to avoid being "Japanese", to avoid "Japanese" qualities. It was largely through my contact with John Cage that I came to recognize the value of my own tradition.<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>For Takemitsu, as he explained later in a lecture in 1988, one performance of Japanese traditional music stood out:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>One day I chanced to see a performance of the <a "/kiwi/Bunraku" title="Bunraku">Bunraku</a> puppet theater and was very surprised by it. It was in the tone quality, the timbre, of the futazao <a "/kiwi/Shamisen" title="Shamisen">shamisen</a>, the wide-necked shamisen used in Bunraku, that I first recognized the splendor of traditional Japanese music. I was very moved by it and I wondered why my attention had never been captured before by this Japanese music.<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>Thereafter, he resolved to study all types of traditional Japanese music, paying special attention to the differences between the two very different musical traditions, in a diligent attempt to "bring forth the sensibilities of Japanese music that had always been within [him]".<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup> This was no easy task, since in the years following the war traditional music was largely overlooked and ignored: only one or two "masters" continued to keep their art alive, often meeting with public indifference. In conservatoria across the country, even students of traditional instruments were always required to learn the piano.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-23">[23]</a></sup></p>
<p>From the early 1960s, Takemitsu began to make use of <a "/kiwi/Traditional_Japanese_musical_instruments" title="Traditional Japanese musical instruments">traditional Japanese instruments</a> in his music, and even took up playing the <i><a "/kiwi/Biwa" title="Biwa">biwa</a></i>an instrument he used in his score for the film <i><a "/kiwi/Harakiri_(1962_film)" title="Harakiri (1962 film)">Seppuku</a></i> (1962).<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> In 1967, Takemitsu received a commission from the <a "/kiwi/New_York_Philharmonic_Orchestra" class="mw-redirect" title="New York Philharmonic Orchestra">New York Philharmonic Orchestra</a>, to commemorate the orchestra's 125th anniversary, for which he wrote <i><a "/kiwi/November_Steps" title="November Steps">November Steps</a></i> for <i>biwa</i>, <i><a "/kiwi/Shakuhachi" title="Shakuhachi">shakuhachi</a></i>, and orchestra. Initially, Takemitsu had great difficulty in uniting these instruments from such different musical cultures in one work.<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-6" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup> <i><a "/kiwi/Eclipse_(Takemitsu)" title="Eclipse (Takemitsu)">Eclipse</a></i> for <i>biwa</i> and <i>shakuhachi</i> (1966) illustrates Takemitsu's attempts to find a viable notational system for these instruments, which in normal circumstances neither sound together nor are used in works notated in any system of <a "/kiwi/Staff_(music)" title="Staff (music)">Western staff notation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Burt_24-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Burt-24">[24]</a></sup></p>
<p>The first performance of <i>November Steps</i> was given in 1967, under <a "/kiwi/Seiji_Ozawa" title="Seiji Ozawa">Seiji Ozawa</a>. Despite the trials of writing such an ambitious work, Takemitsu maintained "that making the attempt was very worthwhile because what resulted somehow liberated music from a certain stagnation and brought to music something distinctly new and different".<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-7" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup> The work was distributed widely in the West when it was coupled as the fourth side of an LP release of <a "/kiwi/Messiaen" class="mw-redirect" title="Messiaen">Messiaen</a>'s <i><a "/kiwi/Turangal%C3%AEla_Symphony" class="mw-redirect" title="Turangalla Symphony">Turangalla Symphony</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-25">[25]</a></sup></p>
<p>In 1972, Takemitsu, accompanied by <a "/kiwi/Iannis_Xenakis" title="Iannis Xenakis">Iannis Xenakis</a>, <a "/kiwi/Betsy_Jolas" title="Betsy Jolas">Betsy Jolas</a>, and others, heard <a "/kiwi/Bali" title="Bali">Balinese</a> <a "/kiwi/Gamelan" title="Gamelan">gamelan</a> music in Bali. The experience influenced the composer on a largely philosophical and theological level. For those accompanying Takemitsu on the expedition (most of whom were French musicians), who "… could not keep their composure as I did before this music: it was too foreign for them to be able to assess the resulting discrepancies with their logic", the experience was without precedent. For Takemitsu, however, by now quite familiar with his own native musical tradition, there was a relationship between "the sounds of the gamelan, the tone of the <i>kapachi</i>, the unique scales and rhythms by which they are formed, and Japanese traditional music which had shaped such a large part of my sensitivity".<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-26">[26]</a></sup> In his solo piano work <i>For Away</i> (written for <a "/kiwi/Roger_Woodward" title="Roger Woodward">Roger Woodward</a> in 1973), a single, complex line is distributed between the pianist's hands, which reflects the interlocking patterns between the <a "/kiwi/Metallophone" title="Metallophone">metallophones</a> of a gamelan orchestra.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-27">[27]</a></sup></p>
<p>A year later, Takemitsu returned to the instrumental combination of <i>shakuhachi</i>, <i>biwa</i>, and orchestra, in the less well known work <i>Autumn</i> (1973). The significance of this work is revealed in its far greater integration of the traditional Japanese instruments into the orchestral discourse; whereas in <i>November Steps</i>, the two contrasting instrumental ensembles perform largely in alternation, with only a few moments of contact. Takemitsu expressed this change in attitude:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>But now my attitude is getting to be a little different, I think. Now my concern is mostly to find out what there is in common&nbsp;… <i>Autumn</i> was written after <i>November Steps</i>. I really wanted to do something which I hadn't done in <i>November Steps</i>, not to blend the instruments, but to integrate them.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-28">[28]</a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="International_status_and_the_gradual_shift_in_style">International status and the gradual shift in style</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: International status and the gradual shift in style">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>By 1970, Takemitsu's reputation as a leading member of avant-garde community was well established, and during his involvement with <a "/kiwi/Expo_%2770" title="Expo '70">Expo '70</a> in <a "/kiwi/Osaka" title="Osaka">Osaka</a>, he was at last able to meet more of his Western colleagues, including <a "/kiwi/Karlheinz_Stockhausen" title="Karlheinz Stockhausen">Karlheinz Stockhausen</a>. Also, during a contemporary music festival in April 1970, produced by the Japanese composer himself ("Iron and Steel Pavilion"), Takemitsu met among the participants <a "/kiwi/Lukas_Foss" title="Lukas Foss">Lukas Foss</a>, <a "/kiwi/Peter_Sculthorpe" title="Peter Sculthorpe">Peter Sculthorpe</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Vinko_Globokar" title="Vinko Globokar">Vinko Globokar</a>. Later that year, as part of a commission from <a "/kiwi/Paul_Sacher" title="Paul Sacher">Paul Sacher</a> and the Zurich <a "/kiwi/Collegium_Musicum" title="Collegium Musicum">Collegium Musicum</a>, Takemitsu incorporated into his <i>Eucalypts I</i> parts for international performers: flautist <a "/kiwi/Aur%C3%A8le_Nicolet" title="Aurle Nicolet">Aurle Nicolet</a>, oboist <a "/kiwi/Heinz_Holliger" title="Heinz Holliger">Heinz Holliger</a>, and harpist <a "/w/index.php?title=Ursula_Holliger&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ursula Holliger (page does not exist)">Ursula Holliger</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-29">[29]</a></sup></p>
<p>Critical examination of the complex instrumental works written during this period for the new generation of "contemporary soloists" reveals the level of his high-profile engagement with the Western avant-garde, in works such as <i>Voice</i> for solo flute (1971), <i>Waves</i> for clarinet, horn, two trombones and bass drum (1976), <i>Quatrain</i> for clarinet, violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1977). Experiments and works that incorporated traditional Japanese musical ideas and language continued to appear in his output, and an increased interest in the traditional Japanese garden began to reflect itself in works such as <i>In an Autumn Garden</i> for <i>gagaku</i> orchestra (1973), and <i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i> for orchestra (1977).<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-30">[30]</a></sup></p>
<p>Throughout this apogee of avant-garde work, Takemitsu's musical style seems to have undergone a series of stylistic changes. Comparison of <i>Green</i> (for orchestra, 1967) and <i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i> (1977) quickly reveals the seeds of this change. The latter was composed according to a pre-compositional scheme, in which pentatonic modes were superimposed over one central pentatonic scale (the so-called "black-key pentatonic") around a central sustained central pitch (F-sharp), and an approach that is highly indicative of the sort of "pantonal" and modal pitch material seen gradually emerging in his works throughout the 1970s.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-31">[31]</a></sup> The former, <i>Green</i> (or <i>November Steps II</i>) written 10 years earlier, is heavily influenced by Debussy,<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-32">[32]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-33">[33]</a></sup> and is, in spite of its very dissonant language (including momentary quarter-tone clusters), largely constructed through a complex web of modal forms. These modal forms are largely audible, particularly in the momentary repose toward the end of the work.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-34">[34]</a></sup> Thus in these works, it is possible to see both a continuity of approach, and the emergence of a simpler harmonic language that was to characterise the work of his later period.</p>
<p>His friend and colleague <a "/w/index.php?title=J%C5%8D_Kond%C5%8D&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="J Kond (page does not exist)">J Kond</a> said, "If his later works sound different from earlier pieces, it is due to his gradual refining of his basic style rather than any real alteration of it."<sup id="cite_ref-kondo_35-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-kondo-35">[35]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Later_works:_the_sea_of_tonality">Later works: the sea of tonality</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Later works: the sea of tonality">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In a Tokyo lecture given in 1984, Takemitsu identified a melodic <a "/kiwi/Motif_(music)" title="Motif (music)">motive</a> in his <i>Far Calls. Coming Far!</i> (for violin and orchestra, 1980) that would recur throughout his later works:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>I wanted to plan a tonal "sea". Here the "sea" is E-flat [<i>Es</i> in German nomenclature]-E-A, a three-note ascending motive consisting of a half step and perfect fourth. [… In <i>Far Calls</i>] this is extended upward from A with two major thirds and one minor third&nbsp;… Using these patterns I set the "sea of tonality" from which many pantonal chords flow.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-36">[36]</a></sup></p>
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<p>Takemitsu's words here highlight his changing stylistic trends from the late 1970s into the 1980s, which have been described as "an increased use of diatonic material […&nbsp;with] references to tertian harmony and jazz voicing", which do not, however, project a sense of "large-scale tonality".<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-37">[37]</a></sup> Many of the works from this period have titles that include a reference to water: <i>Toward the Sea</i> (1981), <i>Rain Tree</i> and <i>Rain Coming</i> (1982), <i>riverrun</i> and <i>I Hear the Water Dreaming</i> (1987). Takemitsu wrote in his notes for the score of <i>Rain Coming</i> that "… the complete collection [is] entitled "Waterscape" … it was the composer's intention to create a series of works, which like their subject, pass through various metamorphoses, culminating in a sea of tonality."<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-38">[38]</a></sup> Throughout these works, the S-E-A motive (discussed further below) features prominently, and points to an increased emphasis on the melodic element in Takemitsu's music that began during this later period.</p>
<p>His 1981 work for orchestra named <i>Dreamtime</i> was inspired by a visit to <a "/kiwi/Groote_Eylandt" title="Groote Eylandt">Groote Eylandt</a>, off the coast of the <a "/kiwi/Northern_Territory" title="Northern Territory">Northern Territory</a> of <a "/kiwi/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>, to witness a large gathering of <a "/kiwi/Indigenous_Australians" title="Indigenous Australians">Australian indigenous</a> dancers, singers and story tellers. He was there at the invitation of the choreographer <a "/kiwi/Ji%C5%99%C3%AD_Kyli%C3%A1n" title="Ji Kylin">Ji Kylin</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-39">[39]</a></sup></p>
<p>Pedal notes played an increasingly prominent role in Takemitsu's music during this period, as in <i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i>. In <i>Dream/Window</i>, (orchestra, 1985) a pedal D serves as anchor point, holding together statements of a striking four-note motivic gesture which recurs in various instrumental and rhythmic guises throughout. Very occasionally, fully fledged references to diatonic tonality can be found, often in harmonic allusions to early- and pre-20th-century composersfor example, <i>Folios</i> for guitar (1974), which <a "/kiwi/Musical_quotation" title="Musical quotation">quotes</a> from <a "/kiwi/Johann_Sebastian_Bach" title="Johann Sebastian Bach">J. S. Bach's</a> <i><a "/kiwi/St_Matthew_Passion" title="St Matthew Passion">St Matthew Passion</a></i>, and <i>Family Tree</i> for narrator and orchestra (1984), which invokes the musical language of <a "/kiwi/Maurice_Ravel" title="Maurice Ravel">Maurice Ravel</a> and American popular song.<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-6" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> (He revered the <i>St Matthew Passion</i>, and would play through it on the piano before commencing a new work, as a form of "purificatory ritual".<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-40">[40]</a></sup>)</p>
<p>By this time, Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese (and other Eastern) musical traditions with his Western style had become much more integrated. Takemitsu commented, "There is no doubt&nbsp;… the various countries and cultures of the world have begun a journey toward the geographic and historic unity of all peoples&nbsp;… The old and new exist within me with equal weight."<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-41">[41]</a></sup></p>
<p>Toward the end of his life, Takemitsu had planned to complete an opera, a collaboration with the novelist <a "/kiwi/Barry_Gifford" title="Barry Gifford">Barry Gifford</a> and the director <a "/kiwi/Daniel_Schmid" title="Daniel Schmid">Daniel Schmid</a>, commissioned by the <a "/kiwi/Op%C3%A9ra_National_de_Lyon" title="Opra National de Lyon">Opra National de Lyon</a> in France. He was in the process of publishing a plan of its musical and dramatic structure with <a "/kiwi/Kenzabur%C5%8D_%C5%8Ce" title="Kenzabur e">Kenzabur e</a>, but he was prevented from completing it by his death at 65.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-42">[42]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-43">[43]</a></sup> He died of <a "/kiwi/Pneumonia" title="Pneumonia">pneumonia</a> on February 20, 1996, while undergoing treatment for <a "/kiwi/Bladder_cancer" title="Bladder cancer">bladder cancer</a> .</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Legacy">Legacy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Legacy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In a memorial issue of <i>Contemporary Music Review</i>, J Kond wrote, "Needless to say, Takemitsu is among the most important composers in Japanese music history. He was also the first Japanese composer fully recognized in the west, and remained the guiding light for the younger generations of Japanese composers."<sup id="cite_ref-kondo_35-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-kondo-35">[35]</a></sup></p>
<p>Composer <a "/kiwi/Peter_Lieberson" title="Peter Lieberson">Peter Lieberson</a> shared the following in his program note to <i>the Ocean that has no East and West</i>, written in memory of Takemitsu: "I spent the most time with Toru in Tokyo when I was invited to be a guest composer at his Music Today Festival in 1987. <a "/kiwi/Peter_Serkin" title="Peter Serkin">Peter Serkin</a> and composer Oliver Knussen were also there, as was cellist <a "/kiwi/Fred_Sherry" title="Fred Sherry">Fred Sherry</a>. Though he was the senior of our group by many years, Toru stayed up with us every night and literally drank us under the table. I was confirmed in my impression of Toru as a person who lived his life like a traditional Zen poet."<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-44">[44]</a></sup></p>
<p>In the foreword to a selection of Takemitsu's writings in English, conductor <a "/kiwi/Seiji_Ozawa" title="Seiji Ozawa">Seiji Ozawa</a> writes: "I am very proud of my friend Toru Takemitsu. He is the first Japanese composer to write for a world audience and achieve international recognition."<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-45">[45]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Music">Music</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Music">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Composers whom Takemitsu cited as influential in his early work include <a "/kiwi/Claude_Debussy" title="Claude Debussy">Claude Debussy</a>, <a "/kiwi/Anton_Webern" title="Anton Webern">Anton Webern</a>, <a "/kiwi/Edgard_Var%C3%A8se" title="Edgard Varse">Edgard Varse</a>, <a "/kiwi/Arnold_Schoenberg" title="Arnold Schoenberg">Arnold Schoenberg</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Olivier_Messiaen" title="Olivier Messiaen">Olivier Messiaen</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-46">[46]</a></sup> (Messiaen was introduced to him by fellow composer <a "/kiwi/Toshi_Ichiyanagi" title="Toshi Ichiyanagi">Toshi Ichiyanagi</a>, and remained a lifelong influence.)<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-7" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> Although Takemitsu's wartime experiences of nationalism initially discouraged him from cultivating an interest in <a "/kiwi/Traditional_Japanese_Music" class="mw-redirect" title="Traditional Japanese Music">traditional Japanese music</a>, he showed an early interest in "… the Japanese Garden in color spacing and form&nbsp;…". The formal garden of the <i>kaiyu-shiki</i> interested him in particular.<sup id="cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-8" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-perspnewmusic-11">[11]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-47">[47]</a></sup></p>
<p>He expressed his unusual stance toward compositional theory early on, his lack of respect for the "trite rules of music, rules that are&nbsp;… stifled by formulas and calculations"; for Takemitsu it was of far greater importance that "sounds have the freedom to breathe.&nbsp;… Just as one cannot plan his life, neither can he plan music".<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-48">[48]</a></sup></p>
<p>Takemitsu's sensitivity to instrumental and orchestral timbre can be heard throughout his work, and is often made apparent by the unusual instrumental combinations he specified. This is evident in works such as <i>November Steps</i>, that combine traditional Japanese instruments, <i><a "/kiwi/Shakuhachi" title="Shakuhachi">shakuhachi</a></i> and <i><a "/kiwi/Biwa" title="Biwa">biwa</a></i>, with a conventional Western orchestra. It may also be discerned in his works for ensembles that make no use of traditional instruments, for example <i>Quotation of Dream</i> (1991), <i>Archipelago S.</i>, for 21 players (1993), and <i>Arc&nbsp;I &amp; II</i> (196366/1976). In these works, the more conventional orchestral forces are divided into unconventional "groups". Even where these instrumental combinations were determined by the particular ensemble commissioning the work, "Takemitsu's genius for instrumentation (and genius it was, in my view) …", in the words of <a "/kiwi/Oliver_Knussen" title="Oliver Knussen">Oliver Knussen</a>, "… creates the illusion that the instrumental restrictions are self-imposed".<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-49">[49]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Influence_of_traditional_Japanese_music">Influence of traditional Japanese music</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Influence of traditional Japanese music">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/5/5f/Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg/200px-Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/5/5f/Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg/300px-Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/5/5f/Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg/400px-Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg 2x" data-file-width="449" data-file-height="355" width="200" height="158"></a>
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<b>Example 1</b>. Bar 10 of <i>Masque I</i>, <i>Continu</i>, for two flutes (1959). An early example of Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese music in his writing, shown in the unusually notated quarter-tone pitch bend above.</div>
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<p>Takemitsu summed up his initial aversion to Japanese (and all non-Western) traditional musical forms in his own words: "There may be folk music with strength and beauty, but I cannot be completely honest in this kind of music. I want a more active relationship to the present. (Folk music in a 'contemporary style' is nothing but a deception)."<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-50">[50]</a></sup> His dislike for the music traditions of his own country in particular were intensified by his experiences of the war, during which Japanese music became associated with militaristic and nationalistic cultural ideals.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-51">[51]</a></sup></p>
<p>Nevertheless, Takemitsu incorporated some idiomatic elements of Japanese music in his very earliest works, perhaps unconsciously. One unpublished set of pieces, <i>Kakehi</i> ("Conduit"), written at the age of 17, incorporates the <i><a "/kiwi/Ryo_scale" class="mw-redirect" title="Ryo scale">ry</a></i>, <i><a "/kiwi/Ritsu_scale" class="mw-redirect" title="Ritsu scale">ritsu</a></i> and <i><a "/kiwi/Insen_scale" title="Insen scale">insen</a></i> scales throughout. When Takemitsu discovered that these "nationalist" elements had somehow found their way into his music, he was so alarmed that he later destroyed the works.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-52">[52]</a></sup> Further examples can be seen for example in the quarter-tone glissandi of <i>Masques I</i> (for two flutes, 1959), which mirror the characteristic pitch bends of the <i>shakuhachi</i>, and for which he devised his own unique notation: a held note is tied to an <a "/kiwi/Enharmonic" title="Enharmonic">enharmonic</a> spelling of the same pitch class, with a <a "/kiwi/Portamento" title="Portamento">portamento</a> direction across the tie.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-53">[53]</a></sup></p>
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<b>Example 2</b>. Opening bars of <i>LitanyIn Memory of Michael Vyner</i>, <i>i Adagio</i>, for solo piano (1950/1989). Another early example of Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese music in his writing, shown here in the use of the Japanese <i>in</i> scale in the upper melodic line of the right hand part. (<a "/kiwi/File:Loudspeaker.svg" class=""><img alt="Loudspeaker.svg" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/11px-Loudspeaker.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/17px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/22px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" width="11" height="11"></a> <a "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/3/34/Takemitsu_litany_excerpt.ogg" class="internal" title="Takemitsu litany excerpt.ogg">Listen</a>)</div>
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<p>Other Japanese characteristics, including the further use of traditional pentatonic scales, continued to crop up elsewhere in his early works. In the opening bars of <i>Litany</i>, <i>for <a "/kiwi/Michael_Vyner" title="Michael Vyner">Michael Vyner</a></i> (first movement), a reconstruction from memory by Takemitsu of <i>Lento in Due Movimenti</i> (1950; the original score was lost), pentatonicism is clearly visible in the upper voice, which opens the work on an unaccompanied <a "/kiwi/Anacrusis" title="Anacrusis">anacrusis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-54">[54]</a></sup> The pitches of the opening melody combine to form the constituent notes of the ascending form of the Japanese <i>in</i> scale.</p>
<p>When, from the early 1960s,<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-8" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> Takemitsu began to "consciously apprehend" the sounds of traditional Japanese music, he found that his creative process, "the logic of my compositional thought[,] was torn apart", and nevertheless, "hogaku [traditional Japanese music&nbsp;…] seized my heart and refuses to release it".<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-55">[55]</a></sup> In particular, Takemitsu perceived that, for example, the sound of a single stroke of the <i>biwa</i> or single pitch breathed through the <i>shakuhachi</i>, could "so transport our reason because they are of extreme complexity&nbsp;… already complete in themselves". This fascination with the sounds produced in traditional Japanese music brought Takemitsu to his idea of <i>ma</i> (usually translated as the space between two objects),<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-56">[56]</a></sup> which ultimately informed his understanding of the intense quality of traditional Japanese music as a whole:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>Just one sound can be complete in itself, for its complexity lies in the formulation of <i>ma</i>, an unquantifiable metaphysical space (duration) of dynamically tensed absence of sound. For example, in the performance of <i>n</i>, the <i>ma</i> of sound and silence does not have an organic relation for the purpose of artistic expression. Rather, these two elements contrast sharply with one another in an immaterial balance.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-57">[57]</a></sup></p>
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<p>In 1970, Takemitsu received a commission from the <a "/kiwi/National_Theatre_of_Japan" title="National Theatre of Japan">National Theatre of Japan</a> to write a work for the <i><a "/kiwi/Gagaku" title="Gagaku">gagaku</a></i> ensemble of the Imperial Household; this was fulfilled in 1973, when he completed <i>Shuteiga</i> ("In an Autumn Garden", although he later incorporated the work, as the fourth movement, into his 50-minute-long "In an Autumn GardenComplete Version").<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-58">[58]</a></sup> As well as being "… the furthest removed from the West of any work he had written",<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-59">[59]</a></sup> While it introduces certain Western musical ideas to the Japanese court ensemble, the work represents the deepest of Takemitsu's investigations into Japanese musical tradition, the lasting effects of which are clearly reflected in his works for conventional Western ensemble formats that followed.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-60">[60]</a></sup></p>
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<b>Example 3</b>. Standard chords produced by the <i><a "/kiwi/Sh%C5%8D_(instrument)" title="Sh (instrument)">sh</a></i>, mouth organ of the traditional Japanese court ensemble, <i><a "/kiwi/Gagaku" title="Gagaku">gagaku</a></i>.</div>
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<p>In <i>Garden Rain</i> (1974, for brass ensemble), the limited and pitch-specific harmonic vocabulary of the Japanese mouth organ, the <i><a "/kiwi/Sh%C5%8D_(instrument)" title="Sh (instrument)">sh</a></i> (see ex. 3), and its specific timbres, are clearly emulated in Takemitsu's writing for brass instruments; even similarities of performance practice can be seen, (the players are often required to hold notes to the limit of their breath capacity).<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-61">[61]</a></sup> In <i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i>, the characteristic timbres of the <i>sh</i> and its chords (several of which are simultaneous soundings of traditional Japanese pentatonic scales) are emulated in the opening held chords of the wind instruments (the first chord is in fact an exact transposition of the <i>sh's</i> chord, J (i); see ex. 3); meanwhile a solo oboe is assigned a melodic line that is similarly reminiscent of the lines played by the <i><a "/kiwi/Hichiriki" title="Hichiriki">hichiriki</a></i> in <i>gagaku</i> ensembles.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-62">[62]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Influence_of_Messiaen">Influence of Messiaen</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Influence of Messiaen">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Messaien-takemitsu_quatrain_compared.png" class=""><img alt="" "
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<b>Example 4</b>. Comparison of ex.94 from <a "/kiwi/Olivier_Messiaen" title="Olivier Messiaen">Olivier Messiaen</a>'s <i>Technique de mon langage musical</i> and one of the principal motives from Takemitsu's <i>Quatrain</i> (1975).<sup id="cite_ref-Burt155_63-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Burt155-63">[63]</a></sup></div>
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</div>
<p>The influence of <a "/kiwi/Olivier_Messiaen" title="Olivier Messiaen">Olivier Messiaen</a> on Takemitsu was already apparent in some of Takemitsu's earliest published works. By the time he composed <i>Lento in Due Movimenti</i>, (1950), Takemitsu had already come into possession of a copy of Messiaen's <i>8 Prludes</i> (through <a "/kiwi/Toshi_Ichiyanagi" title="Toshi Ichiyanagi">Toshi Ichiyanagi</a>), and the influence of Messiaen is clearly visible in the work, in the use of modes, the suspension of regular metre, and sensitivity to timbre.<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-9" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-64">[64]</a></sup> Throughout his career Takemitsu often made use of modes from which he derived his musical material, both melodic and harmonic among which Messiaen's <a "/kiwi/Modes_of_limited_transposition" title="Modes of limited transposition">modes of limited transposition</a> to appear with some frequency.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-65">[65]</a></sup> In particular, the use of the <a "/kiwi/Octatonic" class="mw-redirect" title="Octatonic">octatonic</a>, (mode&nbsp;II, or the 828 collection), and mode&nbsp;VI (825) is particularly common. However, Takemitsu pointed out that he had used the octatonic collection in his music before ever coming across it in Messiaen's music.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-66">[66]</a></sup></p>
<p>In 1975, Takemitsu met Messiaen in New York, and during "what was to be a one-hour 'lesson' [but which] lasted three hours&nbsp;… Messiaen played his <i><a "/kiwi/Quartet_for_the_End_of_Time" class="mw-redirect" title="Quartet for the End of Time">Quartet for the End of Time</a></i> for Takemitsu at the piano",<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-67">[67]</a></sup> which, Takemitsu recalled, was like listening to an orchestral performance.<sup id="cite_ref-messtak_68-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-messtak-68">[68]</a></sup> Takemitsu responded to this with his homage to the French composer, <i>Quatrain</i>, for which he asked Messiaen's permission to use the same instrumental combination for the main quartet, cello, violin, clarinet and piano (which is accompanied by orchestra).<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-69">[69]</a></sup> As well as the obvious similarity of instrumentation, Takemitsu employs several melodic figures that appear to "mimic" certain musical examples given by Messiaen in his <i>Technique de mon langage musical</i>, (see ex. 4).<sup id="cite_ref-Burt155_63-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Burt155-63">[63]</a></sup> In 1977, Takemitsu reworked Quatrain for quartet alone, without orchestra, and titled the new work <i>Quatrain II</i></p>
<p>On hearing of Messiaen's death in 1992, Takemitsu was interviewed by telephone, and still in shock, "blurted out, 'His death leaves a crisis in contemporary music!'&nbsp;" Then later, in an obituary written for the French composer in the same year, Takemitsu further expressed his sense of loss at Messiaen's death: "Truly, he was my spiritual mentor&nbsp;… Among the many things I learned from his music, the concept and experience of color and the form of time will be unforgettable."<sup id="cite_ref-messtak_68-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-messtak-68">[68]</a></sup> The composition <i>Rain Tree Sketch II</i>, which was to be Takemitsu's final piano piece, was also written that year and subtitled "In Memoriam Olivier Messiaen".</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Influence_of_Debussy">Influence of Debussy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Influence of Debussy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Takemitsu frequently expressed his indebtedness to <a "/kiwi/Claude_Debussy" title="Claude Debussy">Claude Debussy</a>, referring to the French composer as his "great mentor".<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-70">[70]</a></sup> As <a "/kiwi/Arnold_Whittall" title="Arnold Whittall">Arnold Whittall</a> puts it:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>Given the enthusiasm for the exotic and the Orient in these [Debussy and Messiaen] and other French composers, it is understandable that Takemitsu should have been attracted to the expressive and formal qualities of music in which flexibility of rhythm and richness of harmony count for so much.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-71">[71]</a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>For Takemitsu, Debussy's "greatest contribution was his unique orchestration which emphasizes colour, light and shadow&nbsp;… the orchestration of Debussy has many musical focuses." He was fully aware of Debussy's own interest in Japanese art, (the cover of the first edition of <a "/kiwi/La_mer_(Debussy)" title="La mer (Debussy)"><i>La mer</i></a>, for example, was famously adorned by <a "/kiwi/Hokusai" title="Hokusai">Hokusai</a>'s <i><a "/kiwi/The_Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa" title="The Great Wave off Kanagawa">The Great Wave off Kanagawa</a></i>).<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-72">[72]</a></sup> For Takemitsu, this interest in Japanese culture, combined with his unique personality, and perhaps most importantly, his lineage as a composer of the French musical tradition running from <a "/kiwi/Jean-Philippe_Rameau" title="Jean-Philippe Rameau">Rameau</a> and <a "/kiwi/Jean-Baptiste_Lully" title="Jean-Baptiste Lully">Lully</a> through <a "/kiwi/Hector_Berlioz" title="Hector Berlioz">Berlioz</a> in which colour is given special attention, gave Debussy his unique style and sense of orchestration.<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-73">[73]</a></sup></p>
<p>During the composition of <i>Green</i> (<i>November Steps II</i>, for orchestra, 1967: "steeped in the sound-color world of the orchestral music of Claude Debussy")<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-74">[74]</a></sup> Takemitsu said he had taken the scores of Debussy's <i><a "/kiwi/Pr%C3%A9lude_%C3%A0_l%27apr%C3%A8s-midi_d%27un_faune" title="Prlude l'aprs-midi d'un faune">Prlude l'Aprs-midi d'un Faune</a></i> and <i>Jeux</i> to the mountain villa where both this work and <i>November Steps I</i> were composed. For <a "/kiwi/Oliver_Knussen" title="Oliver Knussen">Oliver Knussen</a>, "the final appearance of the main theme irresistibly prompts the thought that Takemitsu may, quite unconsciously, have been attempting a latterday Japanese <i>Aprs-midi d'un Faune</i>".<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-75">[75]</a></sup> Details of orchestration in <i>Green</i>, such as the prominent use of <a "/kiwi/Antique_cymbals" class="mw-redirect" title="Antique cymbals">antique cymbals</a>, and <i>tremolandi</i> harmonies in the strings, clearly point to the influence of Takemitsu's compositional mentor, and of these works in particular.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-76">[76]</a></sup></p>
<p>In <i>Quotation of Dream</i> (1991), direct <a "/kiwi/Musical_quotation" title="Musical quotation">quotations</a> from Debussy's <i>La Mer</i> and Takemitsu's earlier works relating to the sea are incorporated into the musical flow ("stylistic jolts were not intended"), depicting the landscape outside the Japanese garden of his own music.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-77">[77]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Motives">Motives</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Motives">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Several recurring musical motives can be heard in Takemitsu's works. In particular the pitch motive E-E-A can be heard in many of his later works, whose titles refer to water in some form (<i><a "/kiwi/Toward_the_Sea" title="Toward the Sea">Toward the Sea</a></i>, 1981; <i>Rain Tree Sketch</i>, 1982; <i>I Hear the Water Dreaming</i>, 1987).</p>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:292px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/d/d5/Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg/290px-Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/d/d5/Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg 1.5x" data-file-width="365" data-file-height="270" width="290" height="215"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
<b>Example 5</b>. Various examples of Takemitsu's S-E-A motive, derived from the German spelling of the notes E, E, A ("Es-E-A").</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>When spelt in German (Es-E-A), the motive can be seen as a musical "transliteration" of the word "sea". Takemitsu used this motive (usually transposed) to indicate the presence of water in his "musical landscapes", even in works whose titles do not directly refer to water, such as <i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i> (1977; see ex. 5).<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-78">[78]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Musique_concr.C3.A8te">Musique concrte</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Musique concrte">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>During Takemitsu's years as a member of the Jikken Kb, he experimented with compositions of <i><a "/kiwi/Musique_concr%C3%A8te" title="Musique concrte">musique concrte</a></i> (and a very limited amount of <a "/kiwi/Electronic_music" title="Electronic music">electronic music</a>, the most notable example being <i>Stanza II</i> for harp and tape written later in 1972).<sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-79">[79]</a></sup> In <i>Water Music</i> (1960 <span class="unicode haudio"><span class="fn"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_02_Water_Music.ogg" title="About this sound"><img alt="About this sound" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/11px-Loudspeaker.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/17px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/22px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" width="11" height="11"></a>&nbsp;</span><a "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/7/79/Takemitsu_02_Water_Music.ogg" class="internal" title="Takemitsu 02 Water Music.ogg">listen</a></span>&nbsp;<small class="metadata audiolinkinfo" style="cursor:help;">(<a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Media_help" title="encarta2018.ga:Media help"><span style="cursor:help;">help</span></a><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_02_Water_Music.ogg" title="File:Takemitsu 02 Water Music.ogg"><span style="cursor:help;">info</span></a>)</small></span>), Takemitsu's source material consisted entirely of sounds produced by droplets of water. His manipulation of these sounds, through the use of highly percussive envelopes, often results in a resemblance to traditional Japanese instruments, such as the <i><a "/kiwi/Tsuzumi" title="Tsuzumi">tsuzumi</a></i> and <i><a "/kiwi/N%C5%8D" class="mw-redirect" title="N">n</a></i> ensembles.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-80">[80]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Aleatory_techniques">Aleatory techniques</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Aleatory techniques">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>One aspect of <a "/kiwi/John_Cage" title="John Cage">John Cage</a>'s compositional procedure that Takemitsu continued to use throughout his career, was the use of <a "/kiwi/Aleatory" class="mw-redirect" title="Aleatory">indeterminacy</a>, in which performers are given a degree of choice in what to perform. As mentioned previously, this was particularly used in works such as <i>November Steps</i>, in which musicians playing traditional Japanese instruments were able to play in an orchestral setting with a certain degree of improvisational freedom.<sup id="cite_ref-Burt_24-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Burt-24">[24]</a></sup> However, he also employed a technique that is sometimes called "aleatory counterpoint"<sup id="cite_ref-lutos_81-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-lutos-81">[81]</a></sup> in his well-known orchestral work <i>A Flock Descends Into the Pentagonal Garden</i> (1977, at [J] in the score <span class="unicode haudio"><span class="fn"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_flock_descends_aleatory.ogg" title="About this sound"><img alt="About this sound" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/11px-Loudspeaker.svg.png" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/17px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/22px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" width="11" height="11"></a>&nbsp;</span><a "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/4/48/Takemitsu_flock_descends_aleatory.ogg" class="internal" title="Takemitsu flock descends aleatory.ogg">listen</a></span>&nbsp;<small class="metadata audiolinkinfo" style="cursor:help;">(<a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Media_help" title="encarta2018.ga:Media help"><span style="cursor:help;">help</span></a><a "/kiwi/File:Takemitsu_flock_descends_aleatory.ogg" title="File:Takemitsu flock descends aleatory.ogg"><span style="cursor:help;">info</span></a>)</small></span>),<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-82">[82]</a></sup> and in the score of <i>Arc II: i Textures</i> (1964) for piano and orchestra, in which sections of the orchestra are divided into groups, and required to repeat short passages of music at will. In these passages the overall sequence of events is, however, controlled by the conductor, who is instructed about the approximate durations for each section, and who indicates to the orchestra when to move from one section to next. The technique is commonly found in the work of <a "/kiwi/Witold_Lutos%C5%82awski" title="Witold Lutosawski">Witold Lutosawski</a>, who pioneered it in his <i>Jeux vnitiens</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-lutos_81-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-lutos-81">[81]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Film_music">Film music</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Film music">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Takemitsu's contribution to film music was considerable; in under 40 years he composed music for over 100 films,<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-83">[83]</a></sup> some of which were written for purely financial reasons (such as those written for <a "/kiwi/Noboru_Nakamura" title="Noboru Nakamura">Noboru Nakamura</a>). However, as the composer attained financial independence, he grew more selective, often reading whole scripts before agreeing to compose the music, and later surveying the action on set, "breathing the atmosphere" whilst conceiving his musical ideas.<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-84">[84]</a></sup> One notable consideration in Takemitsu's composition for film was his careful use of silence (also important in many of his concert works), which often immediately intensifies the events on screen, and prevents any monotony through a continuous musical accompaniment. For the first battle scene of <a "/kiwi/Akira_Kurosawa" title="Akira Kurosawa">Akira Kurosawa</a>'s <i><a "/kiwi/Ran_(film)" title="Ran (film)">Ran</a></i>, Takemitsu provided an extended passage of intense elegiac quality that halts at the sound of a single gunshot, leaving the audience with the pure "sounds of battle: cries screams and neighing horses".<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-85">[85]</a></sup></p>
<p>Takemitsu attached the greatest importance to the director's conception of the film; in an interview with <a "/w/index.php?title=Max_Tessier&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Max Tessier (page does not exist)">Max Tessier</a>, he explained that, "everything depends on the film itself&nbsp;… I try to concentrate as much as possible on the subject, so that I can express what the director feels himself. I try to extend his feelings with my music."<sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-86">[86]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Awards">Awards</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Awards">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Takemitsu won awards for composition, both in Japan and abroad, including the Prix Italia for his orchestral work <i>Tableau noir</i> in 1958, the Otaka Prize in 1976 and 1981, the Los Angeles Film Critics Award in 1987 (for the film score <i>Ran</i>) and the <a "/kiwi/University_of_Louisville" title="University of Louisville">University of Louisville</a> <a "/kiwi/Grawemeyer_Award_for_Music_Composition" class="mw-redirect" title="Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition">Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition</a> in 1994 (for <i>Fantasma/Cantos</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-grove_2-10" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-grove-2">[2]</a></sup> In Japan, he received the <a "/kiwi/Japan_Academy_Prize_(film)" class="mw-redirect" title="Japan Academy Prize (film)">Film Awards of the Japanese Academy</a> for outstanding achievement in music, for soundtracks to the following films:</p>
<ul>
<li>1979 <i><a "/w/index.php?title=Ai_no_borei_(film)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ai no borei (film) (page does not exist)">Ai no borei</a></i> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"></span>)</span></li>
<li>1986 <i><a "/kiwi/Ran_(film)" title="Ran (film)">Ran</a></i> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"></span>)</span></li>
<li>1990 <i><a "/kiwi/Rikyu_(film)" title="Rikyu (film)">Rikyu</a></i> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"></span>)</span></li>
<li>1996 <i><a "/kiwi/Sharaku_(film)" title="Sharaku (film)">Sharaku</a></i> <span style="font-weight: normal">(<span xml:lang="ja" lang="ja"></span>)</span></li>
</ul>
<p>He was also invited to attend numerous international festivals throughout his career, and presented lectures and talks at academic institutions across the world. He was made an honorary member of the Akademie der Knste of the DDR in 1979, and the American Institute of Arts and Letters in 1985. He was admitted to the French <i>Ordre des Arts et des Lettres</i> in 1985, and the <i>Acadmie des Beaux-Arts</i> in 1986. He was the recipient of the 22nd <a "/kiwi/Suntory_Music_Award" title="Suntory Music Award">Suntory Music Award</a> (1990). Takemitsu was posthumously awarded the fourth <a "/kiwi/Glenn_Gould_Prize" title="Glenn Gould Prize">Glenn Gould Prize</a> in Autumn, 1996.</p>
<p>The Toru Takemitsu Composition Award, intended to "encourage a younger generation of composers who will shape the coming age through their new musical works", is named after him.<sup id="cite_ref-p-ttca_10-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-p-ttca-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notable_compositions">Notable compositions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Notable compositions">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a "/kiwi/List_of_compositions_by_T%C5%8Dru_Takemitsu" class="mw-redirect" title="List of compositions by Tru Takemitsu">List of compositions by Tru Takemitsu</a></div>
<div>
<table class="multicol" role="presentation" style="border-collapse: collapse; padding: 0; border: 0; background:transparent; width:100%;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">
<dl>
<dt>Orchestral works</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Requiem for String Orchestra</i> (1957)</li>
<li><i>Music of Tree</i> (1961)</li>
<li><i>The Dorian Horizon</i> (1966)</li>
<li><i>Green</i> (1967)</li>
<li><i>Winter</i> (1971)</li>
<li><i>A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden</i> (1977)</li>
<li><i>A Way A Lone II</i> for string orchestra (version of A Way a Lone for string quartet)</li>
<li><i>Dreamtime</i> (1981)</li>
<li><i>Rain Coming</i> for chamber orchestra (1982)</li>
<li><i>Dream/Window</i> (1985)</li>
<li><i>Twill by TwilightIn Memory of Morton Feldman</i> (1988)</li>
<li><i>Tree Line</i> for chamber orchestra (1988)</li>
<li><i>Visions</i> (1990)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>I <i>Mystre</i></dd>
<dd>II <i>Les yeux clos</i></dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>How slow the Wind</i> (1991)</li>
<li><i>Archipelago S.</i> for 21 players (1993)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Works for soloists and orchestra</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Scene</i>: for cello and string orchestra (1958)</li>
<li><i>Arc Part I</i> for piano and orchestra (19631966/1976)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>I <i>Pile</i> (1963)</dd>
<dd>II <i>Solitude</i> (1966)</dd>
<dd>III <i>Your love and the crossing</i> (1963)</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Arc Part II</i> for piano and orchestra (19641966/1976)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>I <i>Textures</i> (1964)</dd>
<dd>II <i>Reflection</i> (1966)</dd>
<dd>III <i>Coda&nbsp;… Shall begin from the end</i> (1966)</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/November_Steps" title="November Steps">November Steps</a></i> for <i>biwa</i>, <i>shakuhachi</i> and orchestra (1967)</li>
<li><i>Asterism</i> for piano and orchestra (1967)</li>
<li><i>Eucalypts I</i> for flute, oboe, harp and string orchestra (1970)</li>
<li><i>Autumn</i> for <i>biwa</i>, <i>shakuhachi</i> and orchestra (1973)</li>
<li><i>Quatrain</i> for clarinet, violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1975)</li>
<li><i>Far calls. Coming, far!</i> for violin and orchestra (1980)</li>
<li><i>Toward the Sea II</i> for alto flute, harp and string orchestra (version of <i>Toward the Sea</i> for alto flute and guitar (1981))</li>
<li><i>To the Edge of Dream</i> for guitar and orchestra (1983)</li>
<li><i>Orion and Pleiades</i> for cello and orchestra (1984)</li>
<li><i>riverrun</i> for piano and orchestra (1984)</li>
<li><i>I Hear the Water Dreaming</i> for flute and orchestra (1987)</li>
<li><i>NostalghiaIn Memory of Andrei Tarkovsky</i> for violin and string orchestra (1987)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/A_String_Around_Autumn" title="A String Around Autumn">A String Around Autumn</a></i> for viola and orchestra (1989)</li>
<li><i>From Me Flows What You Call Time</i> for five percussionists and orchestra (1990)</li>
<li><i>Fantasma/Cantos</i> for clarinet and orchestra (1991), winner of the <a "/kiwi/Grawemeyer_Award" title="Grawemeyer Award">Grawemeyer Award</a> for Music Composition.</li>
<li><i>Quotation of Dream</i> for two pianos and orchestra (1991)</li>
<li><i>Fantasma/Cantos II</i> for trombone and orchestra (1994)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Electronic and tape music</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Static Relief</i>, magnetic tape (1955)</li>
<li><i>Vocalism AI</i>, magnetic tape (1956)</li>
<li><i>Water Music</i> (1960)</li>
<li><i>Kaidan</i> (1964)</li>
</ul>
</td>
<td style="text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">
<dl>
<dt>Chamber works</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Le Son Calligraph IIII</i> for four violins, two violas and two cellos (19581960)</li>
<li><i>Ring</i> for flute, terz guitar and lute (1961)</li>
<li><i>Corona II for string(s)</i> graphic work in collaboration with Khei Sugiura (1962)</li>
<li><i>Arc for Strings</i> graphic work (1963)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Valeria_(Takemitsu)" title="Valeria (Takemitsu)">Valeria</a></i> for violin, cello, guitar, electric organ and two piccolos (1965)</li>
<li><i>Eucalypts II</i> for flute, oboe and harp (1971)</li>
<li><i>In an Autumn Garden</i> for <i>gagaku</i> orchestra (1973/1979)</li>
<li><i>Garden Rain</i> for brass ensemble (1974)</li>
<li><i>Waves</i> for clarinet, horn, two trombones and bass drum (1976)</li>
<li><i>Quatrain II</i> for clarinet, violin, cello and piano (1977)</li>
<li><i>A Way a Lone</i> for string quartet (1981)</li>
<li><i>Rocking Mirror Daybreak</i> for violin duo (1983)</li>
<li><i>Signals from Heaven</i>two antiphonal fanfares for two brass groups (1987)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>I <i>Day Signal</i></dd>
<dd>II <i>Night Signal</i></dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>And then I knew 'twas Wind</i> for flute, viola and harp (1992)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Piano works</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Romance</i> (1949)</li>
<li><i>Lento in Due Movimenti</i> (1950, unpublished/original lostrewritten as <i>Litany</i>, 1989)</li>
<li><i>Piano Distance</i> (1961)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Corona_(Takemitsu)" title="Corona (Takemitsu)">Corona for pianist(s)</a></i> graphic score (in collaboration with Khei Sugiura, 1962)</li>
<li><i>Crossing</i> graphic score (in collaboration with Khei Sugiura, 1962)</li>
<li><i>For Away</i> (1973)</li>
<li><i>Les yeux clos</i> (1979)</li>
<li><i>Rain Tree Sketch</i> (1982)</li>
<li><i>LitanyIn Memory of <a "/kiwi/Michael_Vyner" title="Michael Vyner">Michael Vyner</a></i> recomposition of <i>Lento in Due Movimenti</i> (1950/1989)</li>
<li><i>Rain Tree Sketch IIIn Memoriam Olivier Messiaen</i> (1992)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Guitar</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Folios</i> (1974)</li>
<li><i>12 Songs for Guitar</i> (1974, 1977)</li>
<li><i>The Last Waltz</i> (1983)</li>
<li><i>A Boy Named HIROSHIMA</i> (1987)</li>
<li><i>All in Twilight Four pieces for guitar -</i> written for <a "/kiwi/Julian_Bream" title="Julian Bream">Julian Bream</a> (1987)</li>
<li><i>Bad Boy</i> (1961, 1992)</li>
<li><i>A Pieces for guitar For the 60th birthday of Sylvano Bussotti -</i> (1991)</li>
<li><i>Equinox</i> (1993)</li>
<li><i>In the Woods Three pieces for guitar -</i> (1995)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Film scores</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Pitfall_(1962_film)" title="Pitfall (1962 film)">Pitfall (Otoshiana)</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Hiroshi_Teshigahara" title="Hiroshi Teshigahara">Hiroshi Teshigahara</a> (1962)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Harakiri_(1962_film)" title="Harakiri (1962 film)">Harakiri</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Masaki_Kobayashi" title="Masaki Kobayashi">Masaki Kobayashi</a> (1962)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/The_Woman_in_the_Dunes_(film)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Woman in the Dunes (film)">Woman in the Dunes</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Hiroshi_Teshigahara" title="Hiroshi Teshigahara">Hiroshi Teshigahara</a> (1964)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Kwaidan_(film)" title="Kwaidan (film)">Kaidan</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Masaki_Kobayashi" title="Masaki Kobayashi">Masaki Kobayashi</a> (1964)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Assassination_(1964_film)" title="Assassination (1964 film)">Assassination</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Masahiro_Shinoda" title="Masahiro Shinoda">Masahiro Shinoda</a> (1964)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/The_Woman_in_the_Dunes_(film)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Woman in the Dunes (film)">The Woman in the Dunes</a></i> (1964)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/The_Face_of_Another_(film)" title="The Face of Another (film)">The Face of Another</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Hiroshi_Teshigahara" title="Hiroshi Teshigahara">Hiroshi Teshigahara</a> (1966)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Samurai_Rebellion" title="Samurai Rebellion">Samurai Rebellion</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Masaki_Kobayashi" title="Masaki Kobayashi">Masaki Kobayashi</a> (1967)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Double_Suicide" title="Double Suicide">Double Suicide</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Masahiro_Shinoda" title="Masahiro Shinoda">Masahiro Shinoda</a> (1969)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Dodesukaden" class="mw-redirect" title="Dodesukaden">Dodesukaden</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Akira_Kurosawa" title="Akira Kurosawa">Akira Kurosawa</a> (1970)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Empire_of_Passion" title="Empire of Passion">Empire of Passion</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Nagisa_Oshima" title="Nagisa Oshima">Nagisa Oshima</a> (1978)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Ran_(film)" title="Ran (film)">Ran</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Akira_Kurosawa" title="Akira Kurosawa">Akira Kurosawa</a> (1985)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Black_Rain_(Japanese_film)" class="mw-redirect" title="Black Rain (Japanese film)">Black Rain</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Shohei_Imamura" title="Shohei Imamura">Shohei Imamura</a> (1989)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Rising_Sun_(film)" title="Rising Sun (film)">Rising Sun</a></i>, dir. <a "/kiwi/Philip_Kaufman" title="Philip Kaufman">Philip Kaufman</a> (1993)</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Other instrumental</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><i>Masque</i>, for two flutes (1959, 1960)</li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Eclipse_(Takemitsu)" title="Eclipse (Takemitsu)">Eclipse</a></i>, for biwa and shakuhachi (1966)</li>
<li><i>Voice</i>, (1971)</li>
<li><i>ItinerantIn Memory of Isamu Noguchi</i>, (1989)</li>
<li><i>Paths</i>, for solo trumpet (1994)</li>
<li><i>Air</i> (1995, last published work)</li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Literary_works">Literary works</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Literary works">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul>
<li><cite class="citation book">Takemitsu, Toru (1995). <i>Confronting Silence</i>. Fallen Leaf Press. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-914913-36-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-914913-36-0">0-914913-36-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.aufirst=Toru&amp;rft.aulast=Takemitsu&amp;rft.btitle=Confronting+Silence&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-914913-36-0&amp;rft.pub=Fallen+Leaf+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li>Takemitsu, Toru, with Cronin, Tania and Tann, Hilary, "Afterword", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 27, no. 2 (Summer, 1989), 205214, (subscription access) <a "/kiwi/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.jstorencarta2018.ga/stable/833411">833411</a></li>
<li>Takemitsu, Tru, (trans. Adachi, Sumi with Reynolds, Roger), "Mirrors", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 30 no. 1 (Winter, 1992), 3680, (subscription access) <a "/kiwi/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.jstorencarta2018.ga/stable/833284">833284</a></li>
<li>Takemitsu, Toru, (trans. Hugh de Ferranti) "One Sound", <i>Contemporary Music Review</i>, vol. 8, part 2, (Harwood, 1994), 34, (subscription access) <a "/kiwi/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "dx.doiencarta2018.ga/10.1080%2F07494469400640021">10.1080/07494469400640021</a></li>
<li>Takemitsu, Tru, "Contemporary Music in Japan", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 27 no. 2 (Summer, 1989), 198204 (subscription access) <a "/kiwi/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.jstorencarta2018.ga/stable/833410">833410</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Listening">Listening</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Listening">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul>
<li>Toru Takemitsu <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.lunanovaencarta2018.ga/podcasts/air.mp3">: Air</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.johnmcmurtery.com">John McMurtery</a>, flute</li>
<li>Toru Takemitsu <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.lunanovaencarta2018.ga/podcasts/Voice.mp3">: Voice</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.johnmcmurtery.com">John McMurtery</a>, flute</li>
<li>Toru Takemitsu <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.allmusic.com/album/in-memoriam-takemitsu-guitar-works-w49407">: Guitar</a>, <a "/kiwi/Shin-Ichi_Fukuda" title="Shin-Ichi Fukuda">Shin-Ichi Fukuda</a>, guitar</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes_and_references">Notes and references</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Toru_Takemitsu&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: Notes and references">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-1"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">McKenzie, Don, "Review: [Untitled] Reviewed Work(s): To the Edge of Dream, for Guitar and Orchestra", <i>Notes</i>, 2nd Ser., vol. 46, no. 1. (Music Library Association, Sep., 1989), 230.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-grove-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-9"><sup><i><b>j</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-grove_2-10"><sup><i><b>k</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Narazaki, Yoko; Kanazawa Masakata. "Takemitsu, Toru". In L. Root, Deane. <i><a "/kiwi/The_New_Grove_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians" title="The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians">Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online</a></i>. Oxford University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Takemitsu%2C+Toru&amp;rft.au=Kanazawa+Masakata&amp;rft.au=Narazaki%2C+Yoko&amp;rft.btitle=In+L.+Root%2C+Deane.+Grove+Music+Online.+Oxford+Music+Online&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size: 90%; color: #555">(subscription required)</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-allmusic.com-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-allmusic.com_3-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-allmusic.com_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Coburn, Steven. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.allmusic.com/artist/toru-takemitsu-mn0000373832">"Toru Takemitsu, Artist Biography"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.aufirst=Steven&amp;rft.aulast=Coburn&amp;rft.btitle=Toru+Takemitsu%2C+Artist+Biography&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fartist%2Ftoru-takemitsu-mn0000373832&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-4"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Erickson, Matthew (11 December 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.frieze.com/article/music-43">"The riotous inventiveness of Takehisa Kosugi"</a>. <i>Frieze.com</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=The+riotous+inventiveness+of+Takehisa+Kosugi&amp;rft.aufirst=Matthew&amp;rft.aulast=Erickson&amp;rft.date=2015-12-11&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Frieze.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.frieze.com%2Farticle%2Fmusic-43&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-5"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Kaneda, Miki (2007-12-20). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://cnmat.berkeley.edu/user/miki_kaneda/blog/2007/12/20/electroacoustic_music_japan_persistence_diy_model">"Electroacoustic Music in Japan: The Persistence of the DIY Model"</a>. <i>University of California at Berkeley</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Electroacoustic+Music+in+Japan%3A+The+Persistence+of+the+DIY+Model&amp;rft.aufirst=Miki&amp;rft.aulast=Kaneda&amp;rft.date=2007-12-20&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=University+of+California+at+Berkeley&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcnmat.berkeley.edu%2Fuser%2Fmiki_kaneda%2Fblog%2F2007%2F12%2F20%2Felectroacoustic_music_japan_persistence_diy_model&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-oxfdict-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-oxfdict_6-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Takemitsu, Toru", <i>The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music</i>, Ed. <a "/kiwi/Michael_Kennedy_(music_critic)" title="Michael Kennedy (music critic)">Michael Kennedy</a>, (Oxford, 1996), <i>Oxford Reference Online</i>, Oxford University Press (accessed 16 March 2007) <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" "http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&amp;entry=t76.e8918">[1]</a> (subscription access).</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-7"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, <i>Takemitsu's Works</i>, "The Music of Toru Takemitsu", 277280.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-wilson-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-wilson_8-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wilson, Charles, "Review: Peter Burt, The Music of Toru Takemitsu", <i>Music Analysis</i>, 23/i (Oxford: 2004), 130.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-oxfcomp-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-oxfcomp_9-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burton, Anthony, "Takemitsu, Tru", <i>The Oxford Companion to Music</i>, Ed. Alison Latham, (Oxford University Press, 2002), <i>Oxford Reference Online</i>, (accessed 2 April 2007) <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" "http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&amp;entry=t114.e6633">[2]</a> (subscription access).</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-p-ttca-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-p-ttca_10-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-p-ttca_10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.operacity.jp/en/concert/award/">"Toru Takemitsu Composition Award"</a>. Tokyo Opera City Cultural Foundation.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.btitle=Toru+Takemitsu+Composition+Award&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=Tokyo+Opera+City+Cultural+Foundation&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.operacity.jp%2Fen%2Fconcert%2Faward%2F&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-perspnewmusic-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-perspnewmusic_11-8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, Tru, "Contemporary Music in Japan", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 27, no. 2, (Summer 1989), 3.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-12"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Kanazawa, Masakata. "Japan, IX, 2(i): Music in the period of Westernization: Western music and Japan up to 1945". In L. Root, Deane. <i><a "/kiwi/The_New_Grove_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians" title="The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians">Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online</a></i>. Oxford University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Japan%2C+%C2%A7IX%2C+2%28i%29%3A+Music+in+the+period+of+Westernization%3A+Western+music+and+Japan+up+to+1945&amp;rft.au=Kanazawa%2C+Masakata&amp;rft.btitle=In+L.+Root%2C+Deane.+Grove+Music+Online.+Oxford+Music+Online&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size: 90%; color: #555">(subscription required)</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-13"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Quoted in Ohtake, Noriko, "Creative Sources for the Music of Toru Takemitsu", (Scolar, Cambridge, 1993), 3.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-14"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Fujii, Koichi (2004). "Chronology of early electroacoustic music in Japan: What types of source materials are available?". <i><a "/kiwi/Organised_Sound" title="Organised Sound">Organised Sound</a></i>. <a "/kiwi/Cambridge_University_Press" title="Cambridge University Press">Cambridge University Press</a>. <b>9</b> (1): 6377 [646]. <a "/kiwi/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "
doiencarta2018.ga/10.1017%2FS1355771804000093">10.1017/S1355771804000093</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Chronology+of+early+electroacoustic+music+in+Japan%3A+What+types+of+source+materials+are+available%3F&amp;rft.aufirst=Koichi&amp;rft.aulast=Fujii&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.jtitle=Organised+Sound&amp;rft.pages=63-77+64-6&amp;rft.volume=9&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1017%2FS1355771804000093&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-15"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFThom_Holmes2008" class="citation">Thom Holmes (2008), "Early Electronic Music in Japan", <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=hCthQ-bec-QC&amp;pg=PA106"><i>Electronic and experimental music: technology, music, and culture</i></a> (3rd ed.), <a "/kiwi/Taylor_%26_Francis" title="Taylor &amp; Francis">Taylor &amp; Francis</a>, p.&nbsp;106, <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-415-95781-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-415-95781-8">0-415-95781-8</a><span class="reference-accessdate">, retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-06-04</span></span></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Early+Electronic+Music+in+Japan&amp;rft.au=Thom+Holmes&amp;rft.btitle=Electronic+and+experimental+music%3A+technology%2C+music%2C+and+culture&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.edition=3rd&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.isbn=0-415-95781-8&amp;rft.pages=106&amp;rft.pub=Taylor+%26+Francis&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DhCthQ-bec-QC%26pg%3DPA106&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-burtreviewcam-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-burtreviewcam_16-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Schlren, Christoph, "Review: Peter Burt, 'The Music of Toru Takemitsu' (Cambridge 2001)", <i>Tempo</i> no. 57, (Cambridge, 2003), 65.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-17"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Takemitsu, Toru", <i>Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music</i>, ed. <a "/kiwi/Michael_Kennedy_(music_critic)" title="Michael Kennedy (music critic)"></a>(Oxford 2004), 722, <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-860884-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-860884-4">978-0-19-860884-4</a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-18"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 71.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-afterword-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-afterword_19-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-afterword_19-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-afterword_19-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, Tru [with Tania Cronin and Hilary Tann], "Afterword", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 27 no. 2 (Summer 1989), 205207.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-20"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 92.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-21"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 94.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-22"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">See Burt, 96 and Takemitsu, "Afterword", 212.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-23"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Smaldone, Edward, "Japanese and Western Confluences in Large-Scale Pitch Organization of Tru Takemitsu's November Steps and Autumn", <i>Perspectives of New Music</i>, vol. 27 no.2 (Summer, 1989), 217.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Burt-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-Burt_24-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Burt_24-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 112.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-25"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 111.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-26"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, <i>Mirrors</i>, 6970.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-27"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 1289.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-28"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Afterword", 210.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-29"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 13233.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-30"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 133 and 160</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-31"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 170.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-32"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Notes on November Steps", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 83</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-33"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Anderson, Julian, Liner Notes to Toru Takemitsu, <i>Arc/Green</i>, performed by London Sinfonietta/Oliver Knussen/Rolf Hind, SINF CD3-2006.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-34"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 118124</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-kondo-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-kondo_35-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-kondo_35-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Kond, J "Introduction: Tru Takemitsu as I remember him", <i>Contemporary Music Review</i>, Vol. 21, Iss. 4, (December 2002), 13.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-36"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Dream and Number", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 112.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-37"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Koozin, Timothy, "Traversing distances: pitch organization, gesture and ry in the late works of Tru Takemitsu", <i>Contemporary Music Review</i>, Volume 21, Issue 4 (Routledge, December 2002), 22.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-38"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Preface to score of <i>Rain Coming</i> (1982), quoted in Burt, 176.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-39"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.jirikylian.com/creations/theatre/dream_time/info/">jirikylian.com</a>; Retrieved 6 April 2013]</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-40"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=5W9njPe18mAC&amp;pg=PA153&amp;lpg=PA153&amp;dq=takemitsu+st+matthew+passion&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=I-G-jK5Y_u&amp;sig=bPPKHxbn8MzUyWELzW8geoFq4_g&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=jUffU8GsM5Di8AXf7YD4AQ&amp;ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&amp;q=takemitsu%20st%20matthew%20passion&amp;f=false">Peter Burt, <i>The Music of Toru Takemitsu</i>, p. 153</a>.Retrieved 4 August 2014</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-41"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Mirror and Egg", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 91 and 96.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-42"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kozin, Allan. "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.nytimes.com/1996/02/21/arts/toru-takemitsu-65-introspective-composer-whose-music-evokes-east-andwest-is-dead.html">Toru Takemitsu, 65, Introspective Composer Whose Music Evokes East and West, Is Dead</a>", <i>The New York Times</i>. New York, February 21, 1996.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-43"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Untranslated. Tru Takemitsu and Kenzaburo Oe, <i>Opera wo tsukuru</i>, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1990.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-44"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.schirmer.com/default.aspx?TabId=2420&amp;State_2874=2&amp;workId_2874=30179">Schirmer Website Composer Profile</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-45"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, Tru, "Foreword", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, (California, 1995), vii</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-46"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Koozin, Timothy, "Octatonicism in Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", <i>Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 29, No. 1.</i> (Winter, 1991), 124.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-47"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Anderson, i</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-48"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Nature and Music", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 5.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-49"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Knussen, Oliver, Liner notes to Takemitsu: Quotation of Dream, performed by Paul Crossley/Peter Serkin/London Sinfonietta/Oliver Knussen, Deutsche Grammophon: Echo 20/21 453 4952.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-50"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "Nature and Music", <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 4.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-51"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 22.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-52"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 24.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-53"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 62.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-54"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 31 and 272.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-55"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, Tru, "One Sound", <i>Contemporary Music Review</i> vol. 8, part 2,, trans. Hugh de Ferranti, (Harwood, 1994), 34.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-56"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Day, Andrea, "Ma", <i>Buildings &amp; Cities in Japanese History</i>, Columbia University Website, accessed 31 May 2007 <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" "http://www.columbia.edu/itc/ealac/V3613/ma/">[3]</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-57"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, "One Sound", 4.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-58"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 160161.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-59"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Poirer, Alain, <i>Tru Takemitsu</i>, (Paris, 1996), 6768.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-60"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 166174.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-61"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 167 and Nuss, Steven, "Looking Forward, looking back: Influences of the <i>Gagaku</i> Tradition in the Music of Toru Takemitsu", <i>Music of Japan Today: Tradition and Innovation</i>, (lecture transcribed by E. Michael Richards, 1992) <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20070208224219/http://home.sprintmail.com/~emrichards/nuss.html">"Archived copy"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://home.sprintmail.com/~emrichards/nuss.html">the original</a> on 2007-02-08<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2007-06-02</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.btitle=Archived+copy&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.sprintmail.com%2F~emrichards%2Fnuss.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-62"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 173174.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Burt155-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-Burt155_63-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Burt155_63-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 155156.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-64"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 31.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-65"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">See for example Burt, 34.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-66"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-66"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", 125.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-67"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", 125.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-messtak-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-messtak_68-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-messtak_68-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, Tru, "The Passing of Nono, Feldman and Messiaen", <i>Confronting SilenceSelected Writings</i>, trans./ed. Yoshiko Kakudo and Glen Glasgow, (Berkeley, 1995), 139141.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-69"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Burt, 154 and Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", 125.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-70"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-70"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Takemitsu, <i>Confronting Silence</i>, 3638.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-71"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-71"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Whittall, Arnold, Liner notes to Takemitsu: Garden Rain, performed by Philip Jones Brass Ensemble, Deutsch Grammophon: Echo 20/21 Series 00289 477 5382.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-72"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Durand Cie Edition 1905: see <cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Lesure, Franois. "Debussy, Claude, 6: Debussy and currents of ideas". In L. Root, Deane. <i><a "/kiwi/The_New_Grove_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians" title="The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians">Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online</a></i>. Oxford University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AToru+Takemitsu&amp;rft.atitle=Debussy%2C+Claude%2C+%C2%A76%3A+Debussy+and+currents+of+ideas&amp;rft.au=Lesure%2C+Fran%C3%A7ois&amp;rft.btitle=In+L.+Root%2C+Deane.+Grove+Music+Online.+Oxford+Music+Online&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size: 90%; color: #555">(subscription required)</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-73"><span class="mw-cite-bac