Province-of-Canada---FreeEncartaFreeAssange

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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Province of Canada</h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr" lang="en"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For other uses, see <a "/kiwi/Provinces_and_territories_of_Canada" title="Provinces and territories of Canada">Provinces and territories of Canada</a>, <a "/kiwi/Ecclesiastical_Province_of_Canada" title="Ecclesiastical Province of Canada">Ecclesiastical Province of Canada</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Canada_(New_France)" title="Canada (New France)">Canada (New France)</a>.</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Canada West" redirects here. For the athletic association, see <a "/kiwi/Canada_West_Universities_Athletic_Association" title="Canada West Universities Athletic Association">Canada West Universities Athletic Association</a>.</div>
<table class="infobox geography vcard vevent" style="width:290px;">
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<td colspan="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:135%; font-weight:bold;">United Province of Canada</td>
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<tr>
<td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:middle; text-align:center; font-size:115%;"><a "/kiwi/Territorial_evolution_of_the_British_Empire" title="Territorial evolution of the British Empire">British colony</a></td>
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<td style="vertical-align:middle; text-align:center; font-size:115%; border:0;"><b>18411867</b></td>
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<td style="text-align:center;border:0; vertical-align:middle;"><a "/kiwi/File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg" class="" title="Flag"><img alt="" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/125px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" class="thumbborder" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/188px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/250px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" width="125" height="63"></a></td>
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</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><b>Capital</b></td>
<td style="width:50%;"><small><a "/kiwi/Kingston,_Ontario" title="Kingston, Ontario">Kingston</a> 184144<br>
<a "/kiwi/Montreal" title="Montreal">Montreal</a> 184449<br>
<a "/kiwi/Toronto" title="Toronto">Toronto</a> 184952<br>
<a "/kiwi/Quebec_City" title="Quebec City">Quebec</a> 185256<br>
<a "/kiwi/Toronto" title="Toronto">Toronto</a> 185658<br>
<a "/kiwi/Quebec_City" title="Quebec City">Quebec</a> 185966<br>
<a "/kiwi/Ottawa" title="Ottawa">Ottawa</a> 186667</small></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><b>Languages</b></td>
<td><a "/kiwi/Canadian_English" title="Canadian English">English</a>, <a "/kiwi/Canadian_French" title="Canadian French">French</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow">
<td colspan="2"><b>Government</b></td>
<td>Constitutional monarchy<br>
<a "/kiwi/Responsible_government" title="Responsible government">Responsible government</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow">
<td colspan="2"><b><a "/kiwi/List_of_British_monarchs" title="List of British monarchs">Queen</a></b></td>
<td style="vertical-align:bottom;"><a "/kiwi/Queen_Victoria" title="Queen Victoria">Victoria</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow">
<td colspan="2"><b><a "/kiwi/Governor_General_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Governor General of the Province of Canada">Governor General</a></b></td>
<td style="vertical-align:bottom;">See <a "/kiwi/List_of_Governors_General_of_Canada#Governors_General_of_the_Province_of_Canada.2C_1840.E2.80.931867" title="List of Governors General of Canada">list of Governors General</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedbottomrow">
<td colspan="2"><b><a "/kiwi/Joint_Premiers_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada">Premier</a> and the <a "/kiwi/Executive_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Executive Council of the Province of Canada">Executive Council of the Province of Canada</a></b></td>
<td style="vertical-align:bottom;">See <a "/kiwi/List_of_Joint_Premiers_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="List of Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada">list of Premiers</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><b>Legislature</b></td>
<td>Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Canada</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow">
<td colspan="2"><b>Historical era</b></td>
<td><a "/kiwi/Canada_under_British_rule_(1763%E2%80%931867)" class="mw-redirect" title="Canada under British rule (17631867)">Pre-Confederation Era</a></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow">
<td style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
<td style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"><a "/kiwi/Act_of_Union_1840" title="Act of Union 1840">Act of Union</a></td>
<td style="vertical-align: bottom;">February 10, 1841</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedrow">
<td style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
<td style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;">Democratization</td>
<td style="vertical-align: bottom;">March 11, 1848</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedbottomrow">
<td style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
<td style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"><a "/kiwi/Constitution_Act,_1867" title="Constitution Act, 1867">Canadian Confederation</a></td>
<td style="vertical-align: bottom;">July 1, 1867</td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedtoprow">
<td colspan="3"><b><a "/kiwi/List_of_countries_by_population" class="mw-redirect" title="List of countries by population">Population</a></b></td>
</tr>
<tr class="mergedbottomrow">
<td style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
<td style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;">186061 est.</td>
<td>2,507,657&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2"><b>Currency</b></td>
<td><a "/kiwi/Canadian_pound" title="Canadian pound">Canadian pound</a> 184158<br>
<a "/kiwi/Canadian_dollar" title="Canadian dollar">Canadian dollar</a> 185867 (fixed to <a "/kiwi/United_States_dollar" title="United States dollar">US dollar</a>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="3">
<table style="width:95%; background: transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="text-align:center; border:0; padding-bottom:0">
<div id="before-after"></div>
<b>Preceded by</b></td>
<td style="text-align:center;border:0; padding-bottom:0;"><b>Succeeded by</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center; border:0;">
<table style="width:100%; background: transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto; border:0;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;"><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" class="thumbborder" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/30px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/40px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" width="20" height="10"></td>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;"><a "/kiwi/Upper_Canada" title="Upper Canada">Upper Canada</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;"><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" class="thumbborder" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/30px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/40px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" width="20" height="10"></td>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;"><a "/kiwi/Lower_Canada" title="Lower Canada">Lower Canada</a></td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
</td>
<td style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center;border:0;">
<table style="width:92%; background:transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto; border:0;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;"><a "/kiwi/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a></td>
<td style="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;"><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg/20px-Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg.png" class="thumbborder" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg/30px-Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg/40px-Canadian_Red_Ensign_1868-1921.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="500" width="20" height="10"></td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks hlist" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-width:2px;border-style:ridge;border-color:grey;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em">Part of <a "/kiwi/Category:History_of_Canada" title="Category:History of Canada">a series</a> on the</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em;font-size:145%;font-weight:heavy;"><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canada" title="History of Canada">History of Canada</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;padding-bottom:1.0em;border-bottom:1px solid #CC0000;">
<div class="center">
<div class="floatnone"><a "/kiwi/Battle_of_the_Plains_of_Abraham" title="Battle of the Plains of Abraham"><img alt="Benjamin West 005.jpg" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Benjamin_West_005.jpg/250px-Benjamin_West_005.jpg" class="thumbborder" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Benjamin_West_005.jpg/375px-Benjamin_West_005.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Benjamin_West_005.jpg/500px-Benjamin_West_005.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3456" data-file-height="2304" width="250" height="167"></a></div>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#EEE;padding:0.1em 0;;font-size:95%;"><a "/kiwi/Timeline_of_Canadian_history" title="Timeline of Canadian history">Timeline</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;;font-size:95%;">
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Aboriginal_peoples_in_Canada#History" class="mw-redirect" title="Aboriginal peoples in Canada">Pre-colonization</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/New_France" title="New France">15341763</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Canada_under_British_rule" title="Canada under British rule">17641867</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Post-Confederation_Canada_(1867%E2%80%931914)" class="mw-redirect" title="Post-Confederation Canada (18671914)">18671914</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Canada_in_the_World_Wars_and_Interwar_Years" title="Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years">19141945</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canada_(1945%E2%80%9360)" title="History of Canada (194560)">19451960</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canada_(1960%E2%80%9381)" title="History of Canada (196081)">19601981</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canada_(1982%E2%80%9392)" title="History of Canada (198292)">19821992</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canada_(1992%E2%80%93present)" title="History of Canada (1992present)">1992<small>present</small></a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#EEE;padding:0.1em 0;;font-size:95%;"><a "/kiwi/Outline_of_Canada" title="Outline of Canada">Topics</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;;font-size:95%;">
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Aboriginal_peoples_in_Canada#History" class="mw-redirect" title="Aboriginal peoples in Canada">Aboriginal</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Culture_of_Canada" title="Culture of Canada">Cultural</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Constitutional_history_of_Canada" title="Constitutional history of Canada">Constitutional</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Economic_history_of_Canada" title="Economic history of Canada">Economic</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Former_colonies_and_territories_in_Canada" title="Former colonies and territories in Canada">Former colonies</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_immigration_to_Canada" title="History of immigration to Canada">Immigration</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Military_history_of_Canada" title="Military history of Canada">Military</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_monarchy_in_Canada" title="History of monarchy in Canada">Monarchical</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/National_Historic_Sites_of_Canada" title="National Historic Sites of Canada">Historic Sites</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Persons_of_National_Historic_Significance" title="Persons of National Historic Significance">Persons of significance</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Population_of_Canada" title="Population of Canada">Population</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Territorial_evolution_of_Canada" title="Territorial evolution of Canada">Territorial evolution</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Canadian_women" title="History of Canadian women">Women</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#EEE;padding:0.1em 0;;font-size:95%;"><a "/kiwi/Provinces_and_territories_of_Canada" title="Provinces and territories of Canada">By Provinces and Territories</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;;font-size:95%;">
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Alberta" title="History of Alberta">Alberta</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_British_Columbia" title="History of British Columbia">British Columbia</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Manitoba" title="History of Manitoba">Manitoba</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_New_Brunswick" title="History of New Brunswick">New Brunswick</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador" title="History of Newfoundland and Labrador">Newfoundland &amp; Labrador</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Nunavut" title="History of Nunavut">Nunavut</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_the_Northwest_Territories" title="History of the Northwest Territories">Northwest Territories</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Nova_Scotia" title="History of Nova Scotia">Nova Scotia</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Ontario" title="History of Ontario">Ontario</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Prince_Edward_Island" title="History of Prince Edward Island">Prince Edward Island</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Quebec" title="History of Quebec">Quebec</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Saskatchewan" title="History of Saskatchewan">Saskatchewan</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/History_of_Yukon" title="History of Yukon">Yukon</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#EEE;padding:0.1em 0;;font-size:95%;">See also</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;;font-size:95%;">
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Bibliography_of_Canadian_history" title="Bibliography of Canadian history">Bibliography</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Historiography_of_Canada" title="Historiography of Canada">Historiography</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_years_in_Canada" title="List of years in Canada">List of years in Canada</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold;border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;border-top:1px solid #CC0000;border-bottom:1px solid #CC0000;font-size:95%;"><a "/kiwi/Portal:History_of_Canada" title="Portal:History of Canada">Portal</a></td>
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<tr>
<td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a "/kiwi/Template:History_of_Canada_sidebar" title="Template:History of Canada sidebar"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a "/kiwi/Template_talk:History_of_Canada_sidebar" title="Template talk:History of Canada sidebar"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li>
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encarta2018.ga/w/index.php?title=Template:History_of_Canada_sidebar&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li>
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<p>The <b>United Province of Canada</b>, or the <b>Province of Canada</b>, or the <b>United Canadas</b> was a <a "/kiwi/British_North_America#BNA_colonies_after_the_American_Revolution:" title="British North America">British colony</a> in <a "/kiwi/North_America" title="North America">North America</a> from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by <a "/kiwi/John_Lambton,_1st_Earl_of_Durham" title="John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham">John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham</a> in the <a "/kiwi/Report_on_the_Affairs_of_British_North_America" title="Report on the Affairs of British North America">Report on the Affairs of British North America</a> following the <a "/kiwi/Rebellions_of_1837" class="mw-redirect" title="Rebellions of 1837">Rebellions of 183738</a>.</p>
<p>The <a "/kiwi/Act_of_Union_1840" title="Act of Union 1840">Act of Union 1840</a>, passed July 23, 1840, by the <a "/kiwi/British_Parliament" class="mw-redirect" title="British Parliament">British Parliament</a> and proclaimed by the <a "/kiwi/Monarchy_of_Great_Britain" class="mw-redirect" title="Monarchy of Great Britain">Crown</a> on February 10, 1841,<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup> merged the Colonies of <a "/kiwi/Upper_Canada" title="Upper Canada">Upper Canada</a> and <a "/kiwi/Lower_Canada" title="Lower Canada">Lower Canada</a> by abolishing their separate parliaments and replacing them with a <a "/kiwi/Parliament_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Parliament of the Province of Canada">single one</a> with two houses, a <a "/kiwi/Legislative_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Council of the Province of Canada">Legislative Council</a> as the upper chamber and the <a "/kiwi/Legislative_Assembly_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada">Legislative Assembly</a> as the lower chamber. In the aftermath of the Rebellions of 18371838, unification of the two Canadas was driven by two factors. Firstly, Upper Canada was near bankruptcy because it lacked stable tax revenues, and needed the resources of the more populous Lower Canada to fund its internal transportation improvements. And secondly, unification was an attempt to swamp the French vote by giving each of the former provinces the same number of parliamentary seats, despite the larger population of Lower Canada. Although Durham's report had called for the Union of the Canadas and for <a "/kiwi/Responsible_government" title="Responsible government">responsible government</a> (a government accountable to an independent local legislature), only the first was implemented. The new government was to be led by an appointed Governor General accountable only to the British Crown and the <a "/kiwi/King_of_Great_Britain" class="mw-redirect" title="King of Great Britain">Queen's Ministers</a>. Responsible government was not to be achieved until the second LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry in 1849.</p>
<p>The Province of Canada ceased to exist at <a "/kiwi/Canadian_Confederation" title="Canadian Confederation">Canadian Confederation</a> on July 1, 1867, when it was redivided into the <a "/kiwi/Provinces_and_territories_of_Canada" title="Provinces and territories of Canada">Canadian provinces</a> of <a "/kiwi/Ontario" title="Ontario">Ontario</a> and <a "/kiwi/Quebec" title="Quebec">Quebec</a>. <a "/kiwi/Constitutional_Act_of_1791" class="mw-redirect" title="Constitutional Act of 1791">From 1791</a> to 1841, the territory roughly corresponding to modern-day <a "/kiwi/Southern_Ontario" title="Southern Ontario">Southern Ontario</a> in Canada belonged to the British colony of Upper Canada, while the southern portion of modern-day Quebec belonged to Lower Canada (along with <a "/kiwi/Labrador" title="Labrador">Labrador</a> until 1809, when Labrador was transferred to the <a "/kiwi/Colony_of_Newfoundland" class="mw-redirect" title="Colony of Newfoundland">colony of Newfoundland</a><sup id="cite_ref-marianopolis_2-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-marianopolis-2">[2]</a></sup>). Upper Canada was primarily English-speaking, whereas Lower Canada was primarily French-speaking.</p>
<p></p>
<div id="toc" class="toc">
<div class="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
<span class="toctoggle">&nbsp;[<a role="button" tabindex="0" class="togglelink">hide</a>]&nbsp;</span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a "#Geography"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Geography</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a "#Canada_East"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Canada East</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a "#Canada_West"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Canada West</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a "#Parliamentary_system"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Parliamentary system</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a "#Capitals"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Capitals</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a "#Governors_General"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Governors General</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a "#Charles_Poulett_Thomson.2C_1st_Baron_Sydenham_.281839.E2.80.9341.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham (183941)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-8"><a "#Sir_Charles_Bagot_.281841.E2.80.9343.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Sir Charles Bagot (184143)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-9"><a "#Charles_Metcalfe.2C_1st_Baron_Metcalfe_.281843.E2.80.9345.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe (184345)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a "#Charles_Cathcart.2C_2nd_Earl_Cathcart_and_Baron_Greenock_.281845.E2.80.9347.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart and Baron Greenock (184547)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-11"><a "#James_Bruce.2C_8th_Earl_of_Elgin_.281847-54.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.5</span> <span class="toctext">James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1847-54)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-12"><a "#Edmund_Walker_Head.2C_8th_Baronet_.281854.E2.80.9361.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.6</span> <span class="toctext">Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet (185461)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-13"><a "#Charles_Monck.2C_4th_Viscount_Monck_.281861.E2.80.9368.29"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.7</span> <span class="toctext">Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (186168)</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a "#Executive_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Executive Council of the Province of Canada</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a "#Legislative_Council"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Legislative Council</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a "#Legislative_Assembly"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Legislative Assembly</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a "#District_councils"><span class="tocnumber">2.6</span> <span class="toctext">District councils</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a "#Political_parties"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Political parties</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a "#Reform_Association_of_Canada"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Reform Association of Canada</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a "#Parti_rouge"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Parti rouge</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a "#Clear_Grits"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Clear Grits</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a "#Parti_bleu"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Parti bleu</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a "#Liberal-Conservative_Party"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">Liberal-Conservative Party</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a "#Impact_of_responsible_government"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Impact of responsible government</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a "#Liberal_order"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Liberal order</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a "#Legislative_accomplishments"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Legislative accomplishments</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a "#Baldwin_Act_1849_.28Municipal_government_reform.29"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Baldwin Act 1849 (Municipal government reform)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a "#Rebellion_Losses_Bill_1849"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Rebellion Losses Bill 1849</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a "#Secularizing_King.27s_College_1849"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Secularizing King's College 1849</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a "#Reciprocity_Treaty_of_1854"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Reciprocity Treaty of 1854</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a "#Population"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Population</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a "#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a "#References"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-34"><a "#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Geography">Geography</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Geography">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The Province of Canada was divided into two parts: <a "/kiwi/Canada_East" title="Canada East">Canada East</a> and <b>Canada West</b>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Canada_East">Canada East</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Canada East">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Canada_East" title="Canada East">Canada East</a></div>
<p>Canada East was what became of the former colony of <a "/kiwi/Lower_Canada" title="Lower Canada">Lower Canada</a> after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of <a "/kiwi/Quebec" title="Quebec">Quebec</a> after confederation.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Canada_West">Canada West</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Canada West">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Canada West was what became of the former colony of <a "/kiwi/Upper_Canada" title="Upper Canada">Upper Canada</a> after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of <a "/kiwi/Ontario" title="Ontario">Ontario</a> after confederation.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Parliamentary_system">Parliamentary system</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Parliamentary system">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Constitutional_history_of_Canada" title="Constitutional history of Canada">Constitutional history of Canada</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Capitals">Capitals</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Capitals">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The location of the <a "/kiwi/Capital_city" title="Capital city">capital city</a> of the Province of Canada changed six times in its 26-year history. The first capital was in <a "/kiwi/Kingston,_Ontario" title="Kingston, Ontario">Kingston</a> (18411844). The capital moved to <a "/kiwi/Montreal" title="Montreal">Montreal</a> (18441849) until rioters, spurred by a series of incendiary articles published in <i><a "/kiwi/The_Gazette_(Montreal)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Gazette (Montreal)">The Gazette</a></i>, protested the <a "/kiwi/Rebellion_Losses_Bill" title="Rebellion Losses Bill">Rebellion Losses Bill</a> and <a "/kiwi/Burning_of_the_Parliament_Buildings_in_Montreal" title="Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal">burned down Montreal's parliament buildings</a>. It then moved to <a "/kiwi/Toronto" title="Toronto">Toronto</a> (18491852). It moved to Quebec City from 1852 to 1856, then Toronto for one year (1858)<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> before returning to Quebec City from 1859-1866. In 1857, <a "/kiwi/Queen_Victoria" title="Queen Victoria">Queen Victoria</a> chose Ottawa as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada, initiating construction of Canada's first parliament buildings, on <a "/kiwi/Parliament_Hill" title="Parliament Hill">Parliament Hill</a>. The first stage of this construction was completed in 1865, just in time to host the final session of the last <a "/kiwi/8th_Parliament_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="8th Parliament of the Province of Canada">parliament</a> of the Province of Canada before Confederation.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Governors_General">Governors General</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Governors General">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/List_of_Governors_General_of_Canada" title="List of Governors General of Canada">List of Governors General of Canada</a></div>
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Political organization under the Act of Union, 1840</div>
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<p>The Governor General remained the head of the civil administration of the colony, appointed by the British state, and responsible to them, not the local legislature. He was aided by the Executive Council and the Legislative Council. The Executive Council aided in administration, and the Legislative Council (now the Senate) reviewed legislation produced by the elected Legislative Assembly.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Charles_Poulett_Thomson.2C_1st_Baron_Sydenham_.281839.E2.80.9341.29">Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham (183941)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham (183941)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
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Charles Poulett Thomson</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Charles_Poulett_Thomson,_1st_Baron_Sydenham" title="Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham">Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham</a></div>
<p>Sydenham came from a wealthy family of timber merchants, and was an expert in finance, having served on the English Board of Trade which regulated banking (including the colony). He was promised a barony if he could successfully implement the union of the Canadas, and introduce a new form of municipal government, the District Council. The aim of both exercises in state-building was to strengthen the power of the Governor General, to minimize the impact of the numerically superior French vote, and to build a "middle party" that answered to him, rather than the Family Compact or the Reformers. Sydenham was a <a "/kiwi/Whig_(British_political_party)" class="mw-redirect" title="Whig (British political party)">Whig</a> who believed in rational government, not "responsible government". In order to implement his plan, he utilized widespread electoral violence through the <a "/kiwi/Orange_Order_in_Canada" title="Orange Order in Canada">Orange Order</a>. His efforts to prevent the election of <a "/kiwi/Louis-Hippolyte_Lafontaine" title="Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine">Louis LaFontaine</a>, the leader of the French reformers, was foiled by <a "/kiwi/David_Willson_(1778%E2%80%931866)" title="David Willson (17781866)">David Willson</a>, the leader of the <a "/kiwi/The_Children_of_Peace" title="The Children of Peace">Children of Peace</a>, who convinced the electors of the 4th Riding of York to transcend linguistic prejudice and elect LaFontaine in an English-speaking riding in Canada West.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Sir_Charles_Bagot_.281841.E2.80.9343.29">Sir Charles Bagot (184143)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Sir Charles Bagot (184143)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
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Sir Charles Bagot (1825)</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Charles_Bagot" title="Charles Bagot">Charles Bagot</a></div>
<p>Bagot was appointed after the unexpected death of Thomson, with the explicit instructions to resist calls for responsible government. He arrived in the capital, Kingston, to find that Thomson's "middle party" had become polarized and he therefore could not form an executive. Even the Tories informed Bagot he could not form a cabinet without including LaFontaine and the French Party. LaFontaine demanded four cabinet seats, including one for Robert Baldwin. Bagot became severely ill thereafter, and Baldwin and Lafontaine became the first real premiers of the Province of Canada.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup> However, in order to take office as ministers, the two had to run for re-election. While LaFontaine was easily re-elected in 4th York, Baldwin lost his seat in Hastings as a result of Orange Order violence. It was now that the pact between the two men was completely solidified, as LaFontaine arranged for Baldwin to run in <a "/kiwi/Rimouski" title="Rimouski">Rimouski</a>, Canada East. This was the union of the Canadas they sought, where LaFontaine overcame linguistic prejudice to gain a seat in English Canada, and Baldwin obtained his seat in French Canada.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-6">[6]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Charles_Metcalfe.2C_1st_Baron_Metcalfe_.281843.E2.80.9345.29">Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe (184345)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe (184345)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
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Charles Metcalfe</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Charles_Metcalfe,_1st_Baron_Metcalfe" title="Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe">Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe</a></div>
<p>The Baldwin-LaFontaine ministry barely lasted six months before Governor Bagot also died in March 1843. He was replaced by Sir Charles Metcalfe, whose instructions were to check the "radical" reform government. Metcalfe reverted to the Thomson system of strong central autocratic rule. Metcalfe began appointing his own supporters to patronage positions without Baldwin and LaFontaine's approval, as joint premiers. They resigned in November 1843, beginning a constitutional crisis that would last a year. Metcalfe refused to recall the legislature to demonstrate its irrelevance; he could rule without it. This year-long crisis, in which the legislature was prorogued, "was the final signpost on Upper Canada's conceptual road to democracy. Lacking the scale of the American Revolution, it nonetheless forced a comparable articulation and rethinking of the basics of political dialogue in the province."<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-8">[8]</a></sup> In the ensuing election, however, the Reformers did not win a majority and thus were not called to form another ministry. Responsible government would be delayed until after 1848.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Charles_Cathcart.2C_2nd_Earl_Cathcart_and_Baron_Greenock_.281845.E2.80.9347.29">Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart and Baron Greenock (184547)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart and Baron Greenock (184547)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Charles_Cathcart,_2nd_Earl_Cathcart" title="Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart">Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart</a></div>
<p>Cathcart had been a staff officer with Wellington in the Napoleonic Wars, and rose in rank to become commander of British forces in North America from June 1845 to May 1847. He was also appointed as Administrator then Governor General for the same period, uniting for the first time the highest Civil and military offices. The appointment of this military officer as Governor General was due to heightened tensions with the United States over the <a "/kiwi/Oregon_boundary_dispute" title="Oregon boundary dispute">Oregon boundary dispute</a>. Cathcart was deeply interested in the natural sciences, but ignorant of constitutional practice, and hence an unusual choice for Governor General. He refused to become involved in the day-to-day government of the conservative ministry of William Draper, thereby indirectly emphasizing the need for responsible government. His primary focus was on redrafting the Militia Act of 1846. The signing of the Oregon Boundary Treaty in 1846 made him instantly dispensable.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="James_Bruce.2C_8th_Earl_of_Elgin_.281847-54.29">James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1847-54)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1847-54)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
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James Bruce, Lord Elgin</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/James_Bruce,_8th_Earl_of_Elgin" title="James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin">James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin</a></div>
<p>Elgin's second wife, Lady Mary Louisa Lambton, was the daughter of <a "/kiwi/John_Lambton,_1st_Earl_of_Durham" title="John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham">Lord Durham</a> and niece of Lord Grey, making him an ideal compromise figure to introduce responsible government. On his arrival, the Reform Party won a decisive victory at the polls. Elgin invited LaFontaine to form the new government, the first time a Governor General requested cabinet formation on the basis of party. The party character of the ministry meant that the elected premier and no longer the governor would be the head of the government. The Governor General would become a more symbolic figure. The elected Premier in the Legislative Assembly would now become responsible local administration and legislation. It also deprived the Governor of patronage appointments to the civil service, which had been the basis of Metcalfe's policy.<sup id="cite_ref-biographi.ca_11-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-biographi.ca-11">[11]</a></sup> The test of responsible government came in 1849, when the Baldwin-Lafontaine government passed the Rebellion Losses Bill, compensating French Canadians for losses suffered during the <a "/kiwi/Rebellions_of_1837" class="mw-redirect" title="Rebellions of 1837">Rebellions of 1837</a>. Lord Elgin granted <a "/kiwi/Royal_assent" title="Royal assent">royal assent</a> to the bill despite heated <a "/kiwi/Tory" title="Tory">Tory</a> opposition and his own personal misgivings, sparking riots in Montreal, during which Elgin himself was assaulted by an English-speaking Orange Order mob and the Parliament buildings were burned down.<sup id="cite_ref-biographi.ca_11-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-biographi.ca-11">[11]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Edmund_Walker_Head.2C_8th_Baronet_.281854.E2.80.9361.29">Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet (185461)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet (185461)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
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Sir Edmund Walker Head</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Sir_Edmund_Walker_Head,_8th_Baronet" class="mw-redirect" title="Sir Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet">Sir Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet</a></div>
<p>The appointment of Walker Head (cousin of Sir Francis Bond Head whose inept governship of Upper Canada led to the Rebellion of 1837) is ironic. Some have argued that the Colonial Office meant to appoint Walker Head to be Lt. Governor of Upper Canada in 1836. The difference would have meant little. Both men were Assistant Poor Law Commissioners at the time. Walker Head's appointment in Wales led to the Chartist Newport Rising there in 1839. It was under Head, that true political party government was introduced with the <a "/kiwi/Liberal-Conservative_Party" title="Liberal-Conservative Party">Liberal-Conservative party</a> of <a "/kiwi/John_A._Macdonald" title="John A. Macdonald">John A. Macdonald</a> and <a "/kiwi/George-%C3%89tienne_Cartier" title="George-tienne Cartier">George-tienne Cartier</a> in 1856. It was during their ministry that the first organized moves toward <a "/kiwi/Canadian_Confederation" title="Canadian Confederation">Canadian Confederation</a> took place.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-12">[12]</a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Charles_Monck.2C_4th_Viscount_Monck_.281861.E2.80.9368.29">Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (186168)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (186168)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Charles_Monck,_4th_Viscount_Monck" title="Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck">Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck</a></div>
<p>It was under Monck's governorship that the <a "/kiwi/Great_Coalition" title="Great Coalition">Great Coalition</a> of all the political parties of the two Canadas in 1864. The Great Coalition was formed to end the political deadlock between predominantly French-speaking Canada East and predominantly English-speaking Canada West. The deadlock resulted from the requirement of a "double majority" to pass laws in the Legislative Assembly (i.e., a majority in both the Canada East and Canada West sections of the assembly). The removal of the deadlock resulted in three conferences that led to confederation.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Executive_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada">Executive Council of the Province of Canada</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Executive Council of the Province of Canada">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Executive_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Executive Council of the Province of Canada">Executive Council of the Province of Canada</a></div>
<p>Thomson reformed the Executive Councils of Upper and Lower Canada by introducing a "President of the Committees of Council" to act as a chief executive officer for the Council and chair of the various committees. The first was <a "/kiwi/Robert_Baldwin_Sullivan" title="Robert Baldwin Sullivan">Robert Baldwin Sullivan</a>. Thomson also systematically organized the civil service into departments, the heads of which sat on the Executive Council. A further innovation was to demand that every Head of Department seek election in the Legislative Assembly.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Legislative_Council">Legislative Council</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Legislative Council">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Legislative_Council_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Council of the Province of Canada">Legislative Council of the Province of Canada</a></div>
<p>The Legislative Council of the Province of Canada was the <a "/kiwi/Upper_house" title="Upper house">upper house</a>. The 24 legislative councillors were originally appointed. In 1856, a bill was passed to replace the appointed members by election. Members were to be elected from 24 divisions in each of Canada East and Canada West. Twelve members were elected every two years from 1856 to 1862.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Legislative_Assembly">Legislative Assembly</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Legislative Assembly">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a "/kiwi/Legislative_Assembly_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada">Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada</a> and <a "/kiwi/Joint_Premiers_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada">Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a "/kiwi/List_of_elections_in_the_Province_of_Canada" title="List of elections in the Province of Canada">List of elections in the Province of Canada</a></div>
<table class="kiwitable">
<caption>Elections to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada (1841-1863) - seats won by party</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th colspan="2" rowspan="2"><b>Year</b></th>
<th colspan="3">1841</th>
<th colspan="3">1844</th>
<th colspan="3">1848</th>
<th colspan="3">1851</th>
<th colspan="3">1854</th>
<th colspan="3">1858</th>
<th colspan="3">1861</th>
<th colspan="3">1863</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
<th>CW</th>
<th>CE</th>
<th>Total</th>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Reform_movement_(pre-Confederation_Canada)" title="Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)">Reform</a></b></td>
<td>29</td>
<td></td>
<td>29</td>
<td>12</td>
<td></td>
<td>12</td>
<td>23</td>
<td></td>
<td>23</td>
<td>20</td>
<td></td>
<td>20</td>
<td>19</td>
<td></td>
<td>19</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Clear_Grits" title="Clear Grits">Clear Grits</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>14</td>
<td></td>
<td>14</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Reform_movement_(pre-Confederation_Canada)" title="Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)">Radical Reform</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>6</td>
<td></td>
<td>6</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Reform_movement_(pre-Confederation_Canada)" title="Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)">Moderate Reform</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>5</td>
<td></td>
<td>5</td>
<td>6</td>
<td></td>
<td>6</td>
<td>2</td>
<td></td>
<td>2</td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><i><b><a "/kiwi/Parti_canadien" title="Parti canadien">Patriote</a></b></i></td>
<td></td>
<td>21</td>
<td>21</td>
<td></td>
<td>23</td>
<td>23</td>
<td></td>
<td>23</td>
<td>23</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><i><b><a "/kiwi/Parti_rouge" title="Parti rouge">Rouges</a></b></i></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>4</td>
<td>4</td>
<td></td>
<td>19</td>
<td>19</td>
<td></td>
<td>10</td>
<td>10</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#EA6D6A">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Liberal_Party_of_Canada" title="Liberal Party of Canada">Liberal</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>5</td>
<td>5</td>
<td></td>
<td>9</td>
<td>9</td>
<td></td>
<td>9</td>
<td>9</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>34</td>
<td>5</td>
<td>39</td>
<td>29</td>
<td>29</td>
<td>58</td>
<td>39</td>
<td>25</td>
<td>64</td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#9999FF">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Family_Compact" title="Family Compact">Family Compact</a></b></td>
<td>10</td>
<td></td>
<td>10</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#9999FF">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Tory" title="Tory">Tory</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td>17</td>
<td>17</td>
<td>28</td>
<td>13</td>
<td>41</td>
<td>18</td>
<td>6</td>
<td>24</td>
<td>20</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>23</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#9999FF">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Parti_canadien" title="Parti canadien">Ministerialist</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>23</td>
<td>23</td>
<td></td>
<td>35</td>
<td>35</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#9999FF">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><i><b><a "/kiwi/Parti_bleu" title="Parti bleu">Bleus</a></b></i></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>33</td>
<td>33</td>
<td></td>
<td>27</td>
<td>27</td>
<td></td>
<td>25</td>
<td>25</td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#9999FF">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b><a "/kiwi/Liberal-Conservative_Party" title="Liberal-Conservative Party">Liberal-Conservative</a></b></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>25</td>
<td>9</td>
<td>34</td>
<td>24</td>
<td>15</td>
<td>39</td>
<td>29</td>
<td>8</td>
<td>37</td>
<td>24</td>
<td>11</td>
<td>35</td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td bgcolor="#DCDCDC">&nbsp; &nbsp;</td>
<td align="left"><b>Independent</b></td>
<td>3</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>7</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>5</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>3</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>4</td>
<td>2</td>
<td>1</td>
<td>3</td>
<td></td>
<td>4</td>
<td>4</td>
</tr>
<tr align="right">
<td colspan="2" align="left"><b>Total</b></td>
<td>42</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>84</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>84</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>84</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>42</td>
<td>84</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>130</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>130</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>130</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>65</td>
<td>130</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<div class="thumb tmulti tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:368px;max-width:368px">
<div class="tsingle" style="float:left;margin:1px;width:182px;max-width:182px">
<div class="thumb"><a "/kiwi/File:Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg/180px-Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg/270px-Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/5/58/Louis-Hyppolite_Lafontaine.jpg 2x" data-file-width="329" data-file-height="417" width="180" height="228"></a></div>
<div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left"><a "/kiwi/Louis_Hypolyte_Lafontaine" class="mw-redirect" title="Louis Hypolyte Lafontaine">Louis-Hypolite LaFontaine</a>, Father of <a "/kiwi/Responsible_government" title="Responsible government">responsible government</a></div>
</div>
<div class="tsingle" style="float:left;margin:1px;width:182px;max-width:182px">
<div class="thumb"><a "/kiwi/File:RobertBaldwin23.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/RobertBaldwin23.jpg/180px-RobertBaldwin23.jpg" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/RobertBaldwin23.jpg/270px-RobertBaldwin23.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/RobertBaldwin23.jpg/360px-RobertBaldwin23.jpg 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="745" width="180" height="224"></a></div>
<div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left"><a "/kiwi/Robert_Baldwin" title="Robert Baldwin">Robert Baldwin</a>, Father of responsible government</div>
</div>
<div style="clear:left"></div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Canada West, with its 450,000 inhabitants, was represented by 42 seats in the Legislative Assembly, the same number as the more-populated Canada East, with 650,000 inhabitants.</p>
<p>The Legislature's effectiveness was further hampered by the requirement of a "double majority" where a majority of votes for the passage of a bill had to be obtained from the members of <i>both</i> Canada East and West.</p>
<p>Each administration was led by two men, one from each half of the province. Officially, one of them at any given time had the title of <i>Premier</i>, while the other had the title of <i>Deputy</i>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="District_councils">District councils</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: District councils">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Municipal government in Upper Canada was under the control of appointed magistrates who sat in <a "/kiwi/Quarter_Sessions" class="mw-redirect" title="Quarter Sessions">Courts of Quarter Sessions</a> to administer the law within a District. A few cities, such as Toronto, were incorporated by special acts of the legislature. <a "/kiwi/Charles_Poulett_Thomson,_1st_Baron_Sydenham" title="Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham">Governor Thomson</a>, 1st Baron Sydenham, spearheaded the passage of the District Councils Act which transferred municipal government to District Councils. His bill allowed for two elected councillors from each township, but the warden, clerk and treasurer were to be appointed by the government. This thus allowed for strong administrative control and continued government patronage appointments. Sydenham's bill reflected his larger concerns to limit popular participation under the tutelage of a strong executive.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup> the Councils were reformed by the Baldwin Act in 1849 which made municipal government truly democratic rather than an extension of central control of the Crown. It delegated authority to municipal governments so they could raise taxes and enact <a "/kiwi/By-law" title="By-law">by-laws</a>. It also established a hierarchy of types of municipal governments, starting at the top with cities and continued down past towns, villages and finally townships. This system was to prevail for the next 150 years.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Political_parties">Political parties</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Political parties">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Reform_movement_(pre-Confederation_Canada)" title="Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)">Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Reform_Association_of_Canada">Reform Association of Canada</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Reform Association of Canada">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:292px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Second_Meeting_House.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Second_Meeting_House.jpg/290px-Second_Meeting_House.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Second_Meeting_House.jpg/435px-Second_Meeting_House.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Second_Meeting_House.jpg/580px-Second_Meeting_House.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3336" data-file-height="2104" width="290" height="183"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Second_Meeting_House.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
<a "/kiwi/The_Children_of_Peace" title="The Children of Peace">The Second Meeting House, Sharon</a>, where the Reform Association met June 1844</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>During the year-long constitutional crisis in 184344, when Metcalfe prorogued Parliament to demonstrate its irrelevance, Baldwin established a "Reform Association" in February 1844, to unite the Reform movement in Canada West and to explain their understanding of responsible government. Twenty-two branches were established. A grand meeting of all branches of the Reform Association was held in the Second Meeting House of the Children of Peace in <a "/kiwi/Sharon,_Ontario" title="Sharon, Ontario">Sharon</a>. Over three thousand people attended this rally for Baldwin.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup> the Association was not, however, a true political party and individual members voted independently.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Parti_rouge">Parti rouge</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: Parti rouge">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Parti_rouge" title="Parti rouge">Parti rouge</a></div>
<p>The Parti rouge (alternatively known as the Parti dmocratique) was formed in the Province of Quebec around 1848 by radical <a "/kiwi/French_Canadian" class="mw-redirect" title="French Canadian">French Canadians</a> inspired by the ideas of <a "/kiwi/Louis-Joseph_Papineau" title="Louis-Joseph Papineau">Louis-Joseph Papineau</a>, the <a "/kiwi/Institut_canadien_de_Montr%C3%A9al" title="Institut canadien de Montral">Institut canadien de Montral</a>, and the reformist movement led by the <a "/kiwi/Parti_canadien" title="Parti canadien">Parti patriote</a> of the 1830s. The reformist <i>rouges</i> did not believe that the 1840 <a "/kiwi/Act_of_Union_1840" title="Act of Union 1840">Act of Union</a> had truly granted a <a "/kiwi/Responsible_government" title="Responsible government">responsible government</a> to former Upper and Lower Canada. They advocated important <a "/kiwi/Democracy" title="Democracy">democratic</a> reforms, <a "/kiwi/Republic" title="Republic">republicanism</a>, separation of the state and the church. In 1858, the elected <i>rouges</i> allied with the <a "/kiwi/Clear_Grits" title="Clear Grits">Clear Grits</a>. This resulted in the shortest-lived government in Canadian history, falling in less than a day.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Clear_Grits">Clear Grits</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: Clear Grits">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Clear_Grits" title="Clear Grits">Clear Grits</a></div>
<p>The Clear Grits were the inheritors of William Lyon Mackenzie's <a "/kiwi/The_Reform_Movement_(Upper_Canada)" title="The Reform Movement (Upper Canada)">Reform movement</a> of the 1830s. Their support was concentrated among southwestern Ontario farmers, who were frustrated and disillusioned by the 1849 <a "/kiwi/Reform_Party_(pre-Confederation)" class="mw-redirect" title="Reform Party (pre-Confederation)">Reform</a> government of <a "/kiwi/Robert_Baldwin" title="Robert Baldwin">Robert Baldwin</a> and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine's lack of democratic enthusiasm. The Clear Grits advocated <a "/kiwi/Universal_suffrage" title="Universal suffrage">universal male suffrage</a>, <a "/kiwi/Representation_(politics)#Representation_by_population" title="Representation (politics)">representation by population</a>, democratic institutions, reductions in government expenditure, abolition of the <a "/kiwi/Clergy_reserve" title="Clergy reserve">Clergy Reserves</a>, <a "/kiwi/Voluntarism_(action)" title="Voluntarism (action)">voluntarism</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Free_trade" title="Free trade">free trade</a> with the <a "/kiwi/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>. Their platform was similar to that of the British <a "/kiwi/Chartism" title="Chartism">Chartists</a>. The Clear Grits and the <a "/kiwi/Parti_rouge" title="Parti rouge">Parti rouge</a> evolved into the <a "/kiwi/Liberal_Party_of_Canada" title="Liberal Party of Canada">Liberal Party of Canada</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20_17-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20-17">[17]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Parti_bleu">Parti bleu</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Parti bleu">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Parti_bleu" title="Parti bleu">Parti bleu</a></div>
<p>The Parti bleu was a moderate political group in Canada East that emerged in 1854. It was based on the moderate reformist views of Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Liberal-Conservative_Party">Liberal-Conservative Party</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: Liberal-Conservative Party">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Liberal-Conservative_Party" title="Liberal-Conservative Party">Liberal-Conservative Party</a></div>
<p>The Liberal-Conservative Party emerged from a coalition government in 1854 in which moderate <a "/kiwi/Reform_movement_(pre-Confederation_Canada)" title="Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)">Reformers</a> and Conservatives from <a "/kiwi/Upper_Canada#Canada_West" title="Upper Canada">Canada West</a> joined with <i><a "/kiwi/Parti_bleu" title="Parti bleu">bleus</a></i> from Canada East under the dual prime-ministership of Sir <a "/kiwi/Allan_MacNab" title="Allan MacNab">Allan MacNab</a> and <a "/kiwi/Augustin-Norbert_Morin" title="Augustin-Norbert Morin">A.-N. Morin</a>. The new ministry were committed to secularize the Clergy reserves in Canada West and to abolish <a "/kiwi/Seigneurial_system_of_New_France" title="Seigneurial system of New France">seigneurial tenure</a> in Canada East.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup> Over time, the Liberal-Conservatives evolved into the Conservative party.<sup id="cite_ref-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20_17-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20-17">[17]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Impact_of_responsible_government">Impact of responsible government</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: Impact of responsible government">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<p>No provision for responsible government was included in the Act of Union 1840. Early Governors of the province were closely involved in political affairs, maintaining a right to make <a "/kiwi/Executive_Council_of_Ontario" title="Executive Council of Ontario">Executive Council</a> and other appointments without the input of the legislative assembly.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Citation_needed" title="encarta2018.ga:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2009)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:352px;"><a "/kiwi/File:United_Canada_1848.png" class=""><img alt="" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/United_Canada_1848.png/350px-United_Canada_1848.png" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/United_Canada_1848.png/525px-United_Canada_1848.png 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/United_Canada_1848.png/700px-United_Canada_1848.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="771" width="350" height="225"></a>
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Political organisation under the <i>Union Act</i> (1848)</div>
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<p>However, in 1848 the <a "/kiwi/James_Bruce,_8th_Earl_of_Elgin" title="James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin">Earl of Elgin</a>, the then Governor General, appointed a Cabinet nominated by the majority party of the Legislative Assembly, the Baldwin-Lafontaine coalition that had won elections in January. Lord Elgin upheld the principles of responsible government by not repealing the Rebellion Losses Bill, which was highly unpopular with some English-speaking <a "/kiwi/United_Empire_Loyalists" class="mw-redirect" title="United Empire Loyalists">Loyalists</a> who favoured imperial over majority rule.</p>
<p>As Canada East and Canada West each held 42 seats in the <a "/kiwi/Legislative_Assembly_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada">Legislative Assembly</a>, there was a legislative deadlock between English (mainly from Canada West) and French (mainly from Canada East). The majority of the province was <a "/kiwi/French_people" title="French people">French</a>, which demanded "rep-by-pop" (representation by population), which the Anglophones opposed.</p>
<p>The granting of responsible government to the colony is typically attributed to reforms in 1848 (principally the effective transfer of control over patronage from the Governor to the elected ministry). These reforms resulted in the appointment of the second Baldwin-Lafontaine government that quickly removed many of the disabilities on French-Canadian political participation in the colony.</p>
<p>Once the English population, rapidly growing through immigration, exceeded the French, the English demanded representation-by-population. In the end, the legislative deadlock between English and French led to a movement for a federal union which resulted in the broader Canadian Confederation in 1867.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Liberal_order">Liberal order</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25" title="Edit section: Liberal order">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In "The Liberal Order Framework: A Prospectus for a Reconnaissance of Canadian History" McKay argues that "the category 'Canada' should henceforth denote a historically specific project of rule, rather than either an essence we must defend or an empty homogeneous space we must possess. Canada-as-project can be analyzed as the implantation and expansion over a heterogeneous terrain of a certain politico-economic logicto wit, liberalism."<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup> The liberalism of which McKay writes is not that of a specific political party, but of certain practices of state building which prioritize property, first of all, and the individual.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Legislative_accomplishments">Legislative accomplishments</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section: Legislative accomplishments">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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Burning of the Parliament Buildings, Montreal, 1849</div>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Baldwin_Act_1849_.28Municipal_government_reform.29">Baldwin Act 1849 (Municipal government reform)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27" title="Edit section: Baldwin Act 1849 (Municipal government reform)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The Baldwin Act, also known as the Municipal Corporations Act, replaced the local government system based on district councils in Canada West by government at the county level. It also granted more autonomy to townships, villages, towns and cities.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Rebellion_Losses_Bill_1849">Rebellion Losses Bill 1849</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28" title="Edit section: Rebellion Losses Bill 1849">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a "/kiwi/Rebellion_Losses_Bill" title="Rebellion Losses Bill">Rebellion Losses Bill</a> and <a "/kiwi/Burning_of_the_Parliament_Buildings_in_Montreal" title="Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal">Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Secularizing_King.27s_College_1849">Secularizing King's College 1849</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=29" title="Edit section: Secularizing King's College 1849">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1849, King's College was renamed as the University of Toronto and the school's ties with the Church of England was severed.<sup id="cite_ref-friedland_2002_20-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-friedland_2002-20">[20]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Reciprocity_Treaty_of_1854">Reciprocity Treaty of 1854</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=30" title="Edit section: Reciprocity Treaty of 1854">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Canadian%E2%80%93American_Reciprocity_Treaty" title="CanadianAmerican Reciprocity Treaty">CanadianAmerican Reciprocity Treaty</a></div>
<p>The CanadianAmerican Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, also known as the Elgin-<a "/kiwi/William_L._Marcy" title="William L. Marcy">Marcy</a> Treaty, was a trade treaty between the United Province of Canada and the United States. It covered raw materials and was in effect from 1854 to 1865. It represented a move toward free trade.</p>
<p>Education in Canada West was regulated by the province through the General Board of Education, in 1846, until 1850, when it was replaced by the Department of Public Instruction, until 1876.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-21">[21]</a></sup></p>
<p>Among its accomplishments, the United Province of Canada built the <a "/kiwi/Grand_Trunk_Railway" title="Grand Trunk Railway">Grand Trunk Railway</a>, improved the educational system in Canada West under <a "/kiwi/Egerton_Ryerson" title="Egerton Ryerson">Egerton Ryerson</a>, reinstated French as an official language of the legislature and the courts, codified the <a "/kiwi/Civil_Code_of_Quebec" title="Civil Code of Quebec">Civil Code of Lower Canada</a> in 1866, and abolished the seigneurial system in Canada East.</p>
<p>Exploration of <a "/kiwi/Western_Canada" title="Western Canada">Western Canada</a> and <a "/kiwi/Rupert%27s_Land" title="Rupert's Land">Rupert's Land</a> with a view to annexation and settlement was a priority of Canada West politicians in the 1850s leading to the <a "/kiwi/Palliser_Expedition" class="mw-redirect" title="Palliser Expedition">Palliser Expedition</a> and the Red River Expedition of <a "/kiwi/Henry_Youle_Hind" title="Henry Youle Hind">Henry Youle Hind</a>, George Gladman and <a "/kiwi/Simon_James_Dawson" title="Simon James Dawson">Simon James Dawson</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Population">Population</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=31" title="Edit section: Population">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a "/kiwi/Population_of_Canada_by_year" class="mw-redirect" title="Population of Canada by year">Population of Canada by year</a></div>
<table class="kiwitable">
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<th>Year</th>
<th>Population (Upper) Canada West</th>
<th>Population (Lower) Canada East</th>
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<tr>
<td>1841</td>
<td>455,688</td>
<td>n/a</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1844</td>
<td>n/a</td>
<td>697,084</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1848</td>
<td>725,879</td>
<td>765,797786,693 estimates</td>
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<tr>
<td>185152</td>
<td>952,004</td>
<td>890,261</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>186061</td>
<td>1,396,091</td>
<td>1,111,566</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<p><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/98-187-XIE/colonial.pdf">(broken link 9/2013)</a></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=32" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<dl>
<dt>Political history</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Canada_under_British_rule_(1763%E2%80%931867)" class="mw-redirect" title="Canada under British rule (17631867)">Canada under British rule (17631867)</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_elections_in_the_Province_of_Canada" title="List of elections in the Province of Canada">List of elections in the Province of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_by-elections_in_the_Province_of_Canada" title="List of by-elections in the Province of Canada">List of by-elections in the Province of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Liberal-Conservative_coalition_of_1854" title="Liberal-Conservative coalition of 1854">Liberal-Conservative coalition of 1854</a></li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>Political structure</dt>
</dl>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_Governors_General_of_Canada" title="List of Governors General of Canada">List of Governors General of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Joint_Premiers_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada">Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Legislative_Assembly_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada">Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Speaker_of_the_Legislative_Assembly_of_the_Province_of_Canada" title="Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada">Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Commissioner_of_Crown_Lands_(Province_of_Canada)" title="Commissioner of Crown Lands (Province of Canada)">Commissioner of Crown Lands (Province of Canada)</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_Postmasters_General_for_the_Province_of_Canada" title="List of Postmasters General for the Province of Canada">Postmasters General of the Province of Canada</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=33" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-1"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/province-of-canada-1841-67/">"The Canadian Encyclopedia"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">August 28,</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=The+Canadian+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca%2Fen%2Farticle%2Fprovince-of-canada-1841-67%2F&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-marianopolis-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-marianopolis_2-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/NFLDHistory/Quebec-NewfoundlandLabradorBoundaryIssue.htm">"LABRADOR-CANADA BOUNDARY"</a>. marianopolis. 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">March 20,</span> 2008</span>. <q>Labrador Act, 1809. - An imperial act (49 Geo. III, cap. 27), 1809, provided for the re-annexation to Newfoundland of 'such parts of the coast of Labrador from the River St John to Hudson's Streights, and the said Island of Anticosti, and all other smaller islands so annexed to the Government of Newfoundland by the said Proclamation of the seventh day of October one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three (except the said Islands of Madelaine) shall be separated from the said Government of Lower Canada, and be again re-annexed to the Government of Newfoundland."</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=LABRADOR-CANADA+BOUNDARY&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=marianopolis&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffaculty.marianopolis.edu%2Fc.belanger%2FNFLDHistory%2FQuebec-NewfoundlandLabradorBoundaryIssue.htm&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-3"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Head, Francis Bond (1858). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://books.google.ca/books?id=iyAvAAAAYAAJ&amp;printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false"><i>Toronto, the Grounds Upon which are Based Her Claims to be the Seat of Government</i></a>. Thompson &amp; Co.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=Francis+Bond&amp;rft.aulast=Head&amp;rft.btitle=Toronto%2C+the+Grounds+Upon+which+are+Based+Her+Claims+to+be+the+Seat+of+Government&amp;rft.date=1858&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pub=Thompson+%26+Co&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DiyAvAAAAYAAJ%26printsec%3Dfrontcover%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-4"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=3693">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D3693&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-5"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Saul, John Ralston (2010). <i>Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine &amp; Robert Baldwin</i>. Toronto: Penguin Books. pp.&nbsp;1303.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=John+Ralston&amp;rft.aulast=Saul&amp;rft.btitle=Louis-Hippolyte+LaFontaine+%26+Robert+Baldwin&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=130-3&amp;rft.place=Toronto&amp;rft.pub=Penguin+Books&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-6"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Saul, John Ralston (2010). <i>Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine &amp; Robert Baldwin</i>. Toronto: Penguin Books. pp.&nbsp;1345.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=John+Ralston&amp;rft.aulast=Saul&amp;rft.btitle=Louis-Hippolyte+LaFontaine+%26+Robert+Baldwin&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=134-5&amp;rft.place=Toronto&amp;rft.pub=Penguin+Books&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-7"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=3224">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D3224&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-8"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">McNairn, Jeffrey (2000). <i>The Capacity to Judge: Public Opinion and Deliberative Democracy in Upper Canada 1791-1854</i>. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p.&nbsp;237.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey&amp;rft.aulast=McNairn&amp;rft.btitle=The+Capacity+to+Judge%3A+Public+Opinion+and+Deliberative+Democracy+in+Upper+Canada+1791-1854&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=237&amp;rft.place=Toronto&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-9"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=3561">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D3561&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-10"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Cooke, O. A; Hillmer, Norman (1985). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/cathcart_charles_murray_8E.html">"Murray, Charles, 2nd Earl Cathcart"</a>. In Halpenny, Francess G. <i><a "/kiwi/Dictionary_of_Canadian_Biography" title="Dictionary of Canadian Biography">Dictionary of Canadian Biography</a></i>. VIII (18511860) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.atitle=Murray%2C+Charles%2C+2nd+Earl+Cathcart&amp;rft.au=Hillmer%2C+Norman&amp;rft.aufirst=O.+A&amp;rft.aulast=Cooke&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography&amp;rft.date=1985&amp;rft.edition=online&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2Fen%2Fbio%2Fcathcart_charles_murray_8E.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-biographi.ca-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-biographi.ca_11-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-biographi.ca_11-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=4324">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D4324&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-12"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=4490">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D4490&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-13"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&amp;id_nbr=6306">"Dictionary of Canadian Biography online"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=Dictionary+of+Canadian+Biography+online&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biographi.ca%2F009004-119.01-e.php%3F%26id_nbr%3D6306&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-14"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Whebell, C.F.J. (1989). "The Upper Canada District Councils Act of 1841 and British Colonial Policy". <i>The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History</i>. <b>XVII</b> (2): 194. <a "/kiwi/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "
doiencarta2018.ga/10.1080%2F03086538908582787">10.1080/03086538908582787</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.atitle=The+Upper+Canada+District+Councils+Act+of+1841+and+British+Colonial+Policy&amp;rft.aufirst=C.F.J.&amp;rft.aulast=Whebell&amp;rft.date=1989&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Journal+of+Imperial+and+Commonwealth+History&amp;rft.pages=194&amp;rft.volume=XVII&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F03086538908582787&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-15"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">White, Graham (1997). <i>Government and Politics of Ontario</i>. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p.&nbsp;134.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=Graham&amp;rft.aulast=White&amp;rft.btitle=Government+and+Politics+of+Ontario&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=134&amp;rft.place=Toronto&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-16"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Schrauwers, Albert (2009). <i>Union is Strength: W.L. Mackenzie, the Children of Peace, and the Emergence of Joint Stock Democracy in Upper Canada</i>. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp.&nbsp;23940.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=Albert&amp;rft.aulast=Schrauwers&amp;rft.btitle=Union+is+Strength%3A+W.L.+Mackenzie%2C+the+Children+of+Peace%2C+and+the+Emergence+of+Joint+Stock+Democracy+in+Upper+Canada&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=239-40&amp;rft.place=Toronto&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20_17-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-Joseph_Wearing_1996.2C_pp._19-20_17-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Joseph Wearing, "Finding our parties' roots" in Canadian Parties in Transition, 2nd ed., Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1996, pp. 19-20</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-18"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">J.M.S. Careless, <i>The Union of the Canadas 1841-1857</i>, Toronto: McClelland &amp; Stewart, 1967, pp. 192-197.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-19"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Mckay, Ian. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/chr.81.4.616">"The Liberal Order Framework: A Prospectus for a Reconnaissance of Canadian History"</a>. <i>University of Toronto Press</i>. University of Toronto Press<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 December</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.atitle=The+Liberal+Order+Framework%3A+A+Prospectus+for+a+Reconnaissance+of+Canadian+History&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rft.aulast=Mckay&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utpjournals.press%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.3138%2Fchr.81.4.616&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-friedland_2002-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-friedland_2002_20-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Friedland, Martin L. (2002). <i>The University of Toronto: A History</i>. University of Toronto Press. pp.&nbsp;4, 31, 143, 156, 313, 376, 5936. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-8020-4429-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-8020-4429-8">0-8020-4429-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.aufirst=Martin+L.&amp;rft.aulast=Friedland&amp;rft.btitle=The+University+of+Toronto%3A+A+History&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-8020-4429-8&amp;rft.pages=4%2C+31%2C+143%2C+156%2C+313%2C+376%2C+593-6&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-21"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.archives.tits.on.ca/english/on-line-exhibits/education/ministers.aspx">"The Evolution of Education in Ontario The Ministries and Ministers"</a>. <a "/kiwi/Archives_of_Ontario" title="Archives of Ontario">Archives of Ontario</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">August 12,</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AProvince+of+Canada&amp;rft.btitle=The+Evolution+of+Education+in+Ontario+%E2%80%93+The+Ministries+and+Ministers&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=Archives+of+Ontario&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archives.tits.on.ca%2Fenglish%2Fon-line-exhibits%2Feducation%2Fministers.aspx&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Province_of_Canada&amp;action=edit&amp;section=34" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul>
<li>Careless, J. M. S. The union of the Canadas&nbsp;: the growth of Canadian institutions, 1841-1857. (Toronto&nbsp;: McClelland and Stewart, c1967.) <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-7710-1912-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-7710-1912-2">0-7710-1912-2</a>.</li>
<li>Cornell, Paul G. The great coalition, June 1864. (Ottawa&nbsp;: Canadian Historical Association, 1966.)</li>
<li>Dent, John Charles, 1841-1888. The last forty years&nbsp;: the Union of 1841 to Confederation&nbsp;; abridged and with an introduction by Donald Swainson. (Toronto&nbsp;: McClelland and Stewart, c1972.)</li>
<li>Knight, David B. Choosing Canada's capital&nbsp;: conflict resolution in a parliamentary system. 2nd ed. (Ottawa&nbsp;: Carleton University Press, 1991). xix, 398 p.&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-88629-148-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-88629-148-8">0-88629-148-8</a>.</li>
<li>Messamore, Barbara Jane. Canada's governors general, 1847-1878&nbsp;: biography and constitutional evolution. (Toronto&nbsp;: University of Toronto Press, c2006.)</li>
<li>Morton, W. L. (William Lewis). The critical years&nbsp;: the union of British North America, 1857-1873. (Toronto&nbsp;: McClelland and Stewart, c1964.)</li>
<li>The Pre-Confederation premiers&nbsp;: Ontario government leaders, 18411867; edited by J. M. S. Careless. (Toronto&nbsp;: University of Toronto Press, c1980.)</li>
<li>Ryerson, Stanley B. Unequal union&nbsp;: roots of crisis in the Canadas, 1815-1873. (Toronto&nbsp;: Progress Books, 1975, c1973.) A Marxist assessment.</li>
</ul>
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<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Named Territories</span></dt>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Vinland" title="Vinland">Vinland</a>
<dl>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Markland" title="Markland">Markland</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Helluland" title="Helluland">Helluland</a></dd>
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<dl>
<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Sites</span></dt>
<dd><a "/kiwi/L%27Anse_aux_Meadows" title="L'Anse aux Meadows">L'Anse aux Meadows</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Point_Rosee" title="Point Rosee">Point Rosee</a></dd>
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<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Claims</span></dt>
<dd><b><a "/kiwi/New_France" title="New France">New France</a></b>
<dl>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Acadia" title="Acadia">Acadia</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/History_of_Prince_Edward_Island#French_Colony" title="History of Prince Edward Island">Isle St-Jean</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Cape_Breton_Island#History" title="Cape Breton Island">le Royale</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Canada_(New_France)" title="Canada (New France)">Canada</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Domaine_du_roy" title="Domaine du roy">Domaine du roy</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Louisiana_(New_France)" title="Louisiana (New France)">Louisiana</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Pays_d%27en_Haut" title="Pays d'en Haut">Pays d'en Haut</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Newfoundland_(island)" title="Newfoundland (island)">Terre Neuve</a></dd>
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<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Important sites</span></dt>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Habitation_at_Port-Royal" class="mw-redirect" title="Habitation at Port-Royal">Port Royal</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/History_of_Quebec_City" title="History of Quebec City">Quebec</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Trois-Rivi%C3%A8res" title="Trois-Rivires">Trois-Rivires</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/History_of_Montreal" title="History of Montreal">Montreal</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Fortress_of_Louisbourg" title="Fortress of Louisbourg">Louisbourg</a></dd>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Placentia,_Newfoundland_and_Labrador" title="Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador">Plaisance</a></dd>
<dd><i><a "/kiwi/List_of_towns_in_New_France" title="List of towns in New France">List of towns</a></i></dd>
<dd><i><a "/kiwi/List_of_French_forts_in_North_America" title="List of French forts in North America">List of Forts</a></i></dd>
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<dl>
<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Claims</span></dt>
<dd><a "/kiwi/New_Spain" title="New Spain">New Spain</a></dd>
<dt><span style="font-weight:normal;">Important sites</span></dt>
<dd><a "/kiwi/Fort_San_Miguel" title="Fort San Miguel">Fort San Miguel</a>, <a "/kiwi/Nootka_Sound" tit