Great-White-Fleet---FreeEncartaFreeAssange

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<div id="siteNotice" class="mw-body-content"><div id="centralNotice"></div><!— CentralNotice ></div>
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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Great White Fleet</h1>
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<div id="mw-content-text" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr" lang="en"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For the United Fruit Company's Great White Fleet, see <a "/kiwi/United_Fruit_Company#The_Great_White_Fleet" title="United Fruit Company">United Fruit Company &nbsp;The Great White Fleet</a>.</div>
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Map of the Great White Fleet's voyage (2009 political boundaries shown).</div>
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<td style="background:#002466; vertical-align:middle; padding:5px;"><a "/kiwi/File:TheodoreRoosevelt(cropped).jpg" class=""><img alt="TheodoreRoosevelt(cropped).jpg" "
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<td style="background:#002466; vertical-align:middle; padding:6px; width:100%;"><span style="font-size:0.75em;"><span style="color:#FFF">This article is part of<br>
a series about</span></span><br>
<span class="vcard"><span class="fn"><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Theodore Roosevelt"><span style="color:#FFF">Theodore Roosevelt</span></a></span></span></td>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Political_positions_of_Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Political positions of Theodore Roosevelt">Political positions</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Electoral_history_of_Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Electoral history of Theodore Roosevelt">Electoral history</a></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt#Early_life_and_family" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Early life</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Roosevelt_family" title="Roosevelt family">Family</a></li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/The_Naval_War_of_1812" title="The Naval War of 1812">The Naval War of 1812</a></i></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Rough_Riders" title="Rough Riders">Rough Riders</a>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Battle_of_San_Juan_Hill" title="Battle of San Juan Hill">Battle of San Juan Hill</a></li>
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<li><b><small>Governor of New York</small></b></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Assassination_of_William_McKinley" title="Assassination of William McKinley">McKinley assassination</a></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Booker_T._Washington_dinner_at_the_White_House" title="Booker T. Washington dinner at the White House">Booker T. Washington dinner</a></li>
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<hr>
<p><b>Second term</b></p>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/1904_Republican_National_Convention" title="1904 Republican National Convention">1904 campaign</a>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Second_inauguration_of_Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt">2nd inauguration</a></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Antiquities_Act" title="Antiquities Act">Antiquities Act</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/United_States_Forest_Service" title="United States Forest Service">Forest Service</a></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Pure_Food_and_Drug_Act" title="Pure Food and Drug Act">Pure Food and Drug Act</a></li>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Food_and_Drug_Administration" title="Food and Drug Administration">FDA</a></li>
<li><i><a "/kiwi/Swift_%26_Co._v._United_States" title="Swift &amp; Co. v. United States">Swift &amp; Co. v. United States</a></i></li>
</ul>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Federal_Meat_Inspection_Act" title="Federal Meat Inspection Act">Meat Inspection Act</a></li>
</ul>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Treaty_of_Portsmouth" title="Treaty of Portsmouth">Treaty of Portsmouth</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_Nobel_Peace_Prize_laureates" title="List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates">Nobel Prize</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation" title="Federal Bureau of Investigation">FBI</a></li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Panama_Canal" title="Panama Canal">Panama Canal</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Great White Fleet</a></li>
</ul>
<hr>
<ul>
<li><b><a "/kiwi/United_States_presidential_election,_1912" title="United States presidential election, 1912"><span style="color:#000;"><small>1912 election</small></span></a></b></li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/1912_Republican_National_Convention" title="1912 Republican National Convention">Republican Convention</a></li>
</ul>
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<li><a "/kiwi/Progressive_Party_(United_States,_1912)" title="Progressive Party (United States, 1912)">Progressive Party</a>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/1912_Progressive_National_Convention" title="1912 Progressive National Convention">Convention</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/New_Nationalism_(Theodore_Roosevelt)" title="New Nationalism (Theodore Roosevelt)">New Nationalism</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt#Assassination_attempt" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Assassination attempt</a></li>
</ul>
<hr>
<p><b>Post Presidency</b></p>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Smithsonian%E2%80%93Roosevelt_African_Expedition" title="SmithsonianRoosevelt African Expedition">African Expedition</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Roosevelt%E2%80%93Rondon_Scientific_Expedition" title="RooseveltRondon Scientific Expedition">River of Doubt Expedition</a></li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Citizenship_in_a_Republic" title="Citizenship in a Republic">"Citizenship in a Republic"</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Roosevelt%27s_World_War_I_volunteers" title="Roosevelt's World War I volunteers">WWI volunteers</a></li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt#Legacy" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Legacy</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt#Memorials" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Memorials</a></li>
</ul>
<hr>
<p><a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Theodore Roosevelt's signature"><img alt="Theodore Roosevelt's signature" "
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<a "/kiwi/President_of_the_United_States" title="President of the United States"><img alt="President of the United States" "
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<a "/kiwi/List_of_personal_coats_of_arms_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States" title="List of personal coats of arms of Presidents of the United States"><img alt="Coat of Arms of Theodore Roosevelt.svg" "
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<p>The <b>Great White Fleet</b> was the popular nickname for the powerful <a "/kiwi/United_States_Navy" title="United States Navy">United States Navy</a> battle fleet that completed a journey around the globe from 16 December 1907, to 22 February 1909, by order of United States President <a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Theodore Roosevelt</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-00-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-01-2">[2]</a></sup></p>
<p>It consisted of 16 <a "/kiwi/Battleship" title="Battleship">battleships</a> divided into two <a "/kiwi/Squadron_(naval)" title="Squadron (naval)">squadrons</a>, along with various <a "/kiwi/Task_force" title="Task force">escorts</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-00-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-01-2">[2]</a></sup> Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American martial power and <a "/kiwi/Blue-water_navy" title="Blue-water navy">blue-water navy</a> capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the <a "/kiwi/United_States_Congress" title="United States Congress">United States Congress</a> appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada the nickname "Great White Fleet".<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup></p>
<p></p>
<div id="toc" class="toc">
<div class="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
<span class="toctoggle">&nbsp;[<a role="button" tabindex="0" class="togglelink">hide</a>]&nbsp;</span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a "#Background_and_purpose"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Background and purpose</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a "#Concerns_and_preparations"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Concerns and preparations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a "#Voyage"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Voyage</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a "#Fleet_composition"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Fleet composition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a "#General_fleet_itinerary"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">General fleet itinerary</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a "#First_leg"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">First leg</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a "#Itinerary"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Itinerary</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a "#Ships"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ships</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a "#Second_leg"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Second leg</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a "#Itinerary_2"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Itinerary</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a "#Ships_2"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ships</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a "#Third_leg"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Third leg</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a "#Itinerary_3"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Itinerary</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a "#Ships_3"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ships</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a "#Final_leg"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Final leg</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a "#Itinerary_4"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Itinerary</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a "#Experience_gained"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Experience gained</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a "#Effects_on_US_capital_ship_design"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Effects on US capital ship design</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a "#Effects_on_fleet_operations"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Effects on fleet operations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a "#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a "#References"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a "#Bibliography"><span class="tocnumber">15</span> <span class="toctext">Bibliography</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a "#World_Cruise_of_the_Great_White_Fleet"><span class="tocnumber">15.1</span> <span class="toctext">World Cruise of the Great White Fleet</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a "#Russo-Japanese_War"><span class="tocnumber">15.2</span> <span class="toctext">Russo-Japanese War</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a "#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">16</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Background_and_purpose">Background and purpose</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Background and purpose">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg/220px-PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg/330px-PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg 1.5x, upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg/440px-PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg 2x" data-file-width="804" data-file-height="515" width="220" height="141"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:PostcardUSSConnecticutBB18No1268.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Flagship <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a>: one of a set of commemorative postcards of the ships of the Great White Fleet</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>In the twilight of his administration, United States President Theodore Roosevelt dispatched 16 U.S. Navy battleships of the <a "/kiwi/Atlantic_Fleet_(United_States)" class="mw-redirect" title="Atlantic Fleet (United States)">Atlantic Fleet</a> on a worldwide voyage of circumnavigation from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909.<sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-00-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-2" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-01-2">[2]</a></sup> The hulls were painted white, the Navy's peacetime color scheme, decorated with gilded scrollwork with a red, white, and blue banner on their <a "/kiwi/Bow_(ship)" title="Bow (ship)">bows</a>. These ships would later come to be known as the Great White Fleet.</p>
<p>The purpose of the fleet deployment was multifaceted. Ostensibly, it served as a showpiece of American goodwill, as the fleet visited numerous countries and harbors. In this, the voyage was not unprecedented. Naval courtesy calls, many times in conjunction with the birthdays of various monarchs and other foreign celebrations, had become common in the 19th century. They became increasingly important with the rise of nationalism. In 1891, a large French fleet visited <a "/kiwi/Kronstadt" title="Kronstadt">Kronstadt</a>, <a "/kiwi/Russian_Empire" title="Russian Empire">Russia</a>, in conjunction with negotiations between the two nations. Although France and Russia had been hostile to each other for at least three decades prior, the significance of the call was not lost on Russia, and <a "/kiwi/Tsar" title="Tsar">Tsar</a> <a "/kiwi/Nicholas_II_of_Russia" title="Nicholas II of Russia">Nicholas II</a> signed a treaty of alliance with France in 1894. As navies grew larger, naval pageants grew longer, more elaborate, and more frequent. The United States began participating in these events in 1902 when Roosevelt invited <a "/kiwi/Kaiser" title="Kaiser">Kaiser</a> <a "/kiwi/Wilhelm_II_of_Germany" class="mw-redirect" title="Wilhelm II of Germany">Wilhelm II of Germany</a> to send a squadron for a courtesy call to New York City. Invitations for U.S. Navy ships to participate in fleet celebrations in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany followed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196515.E2.80.9321_4-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196515.E2.80.9321-4">[4]</a></sup></p>
<p>Additionally, the voyage of the Great White Fleet demonstrated both at home and on the world stage that the U.S. had become a major sea power in the years after its triumph in the <a "/kiwi/Spanish%E2%80%93American_War" title="SpanishAmerican War">SpanishAmerican War</a>, with possessions that included <a "/kiwi/Guam" title="Guam">Guam</a>, the <a "/kiwi/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a>, and <a "/kiwi/Puerto_Rico" title="Puerto Rico">Puerto Rico</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-03_5-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-03-5">[5]</a></sup> It was not the first flexing of U.S. naval muscle since that war, however; during the <a "/kiwi/Algeciras_Conference" title="Algeciras Conference">Algeciras Conference</a> in 1906, which was convened to settle a diplomatic crisis between France and Germany over the fate of <a "/kiwi/Morocco" title="Morocco">Morocco</a>, Roosevelt had ordered eight battleships to maintain a presence in the <a "/kiwi/Mediterranean" class="mw-redirect" title="Mediterranean">Mediterranean Sea</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196521_6-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196521-6">[6]</a></sup> Since Japan had arisen as a major sea power with the 1905 annihilation of the Russian fleet at <a "/kiwi/Battle_of_Tsushima" title="Battle of Tsushima">Tsushima</a>, the deployment of the Great White Fleet was therefore intended, at least in part, to send a message to Tokyo that the American fleet could be deployed anywhere, even from its Atlantic ports, and would be able to defend American interests in the Philippines and the Pacific.<sup id="cite_ref-peacefulsea_7-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-peacefulsea-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-8">[8]</a></sup></p>
<p>That gesture capitalized on a war scare that had resulted from <a "/kiwi/Pacific_Coast_race_riots_of_1907" title="Pacific Coast race riots of 1907">anti-Japanese riots in San Francisco</a>. Roosevelt saw the deployment of the fleet as one that would take the American public's mind off an economic depression that had begun in 1907, encourage patriotism, and give the impression that he would teach Japan "a lesson in polite behavior", as historian Robert A. Hart phrased it.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196524_9-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196524-9">[9]</a></sup> Roosevelt did so on the assurance from financial experts that Japan had been drained from the Russo-Japanese War and would not be ready for another conflict for at least a decade.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196524_9-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196524-9">[9]</a></sup> After the fleet had crossed the Pacific, Japanese statesmen realized that the balance of power in the East had changed since the <a "/kiwi/Root%E2%80%93Takahira_Agreement" title="RootTakahira Agreement">RootTakahira Agreement</a> that defined relevant spheres of interest of the United States and Japan.<sup id="cite_ref-peacefulsea_7-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-peacefulsea-7">[7]</a></sup></p>
<p>The voyage also provided an opportunity to improve the sea- and battle-worthiness of the fleet. While earlier capital ship classes such as the <a "/kiwi/Kearsarge-class_battleship" title="Kearsarge-class battleship"><i>Kearsarge</i></a>, <a "/kiwi/Illinois-class_battleship" title="Illinois-class battleship"><i>Illinois</i></a> and <a "/kiwi/Maine-class_battleship" title="Maine-class battleship"><i>Maine</i></a> were designed primarily for coastal defense, later classes such as the <a "/kiwi/Virginia-class_battleship" title="Virginia-class battleship"><i>Virginia</i></a> and <a "/kiwi/Connecticut-class_battleship" title="Connecticut-class battleship"><i>Connecticut</i></a> incorporated lessons learned from the SpanishAmerican War and were conceived as ships with "the highest practicable speed and the greatest radius of action", in the words of the appropriation bills approved by the <a "/kiwi/United_States_Congress" title="United States Congress">United States Congress</a> for their construction. They were intended as modern warships capable of long-range operations. Nevertheless, the experience gained in the recent war with Spain had been limited.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford200812_10-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrawford200812-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Concerns_and_preparations">Concerns and preparations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Concerns and preparations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Roosevelt's stated intent was to give the navy practice in navigation, communication, coal consumption and fleet maneuvering; navy professionals maintained, however, that such matters could be served better in home waters. In light of what had happened to the Russian <a "/kiwi/Baltic_Fleet" title="Baltic Fleet">Baltic Fleet</a>, they were concerned about sending their own fleet on a long deployment, especially since part of the intent was to impress a modern, battle-tested navy that had not known defeat. The fleet was untested in making such a voyage, and Tsushima had proven that extended deployments had no place in practical strategy.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196523.E2.80.9324_11-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196523.E2.80.9324-11">[11]</a></sup> The Japanese navy was close to coaling and repair facilities; while American ships could coal in the Philippines, docking facilities were far from optimal. An extended stop on the West Coast of the United States during the voyage for overhaul and refurbishment in dry dock would be a necessity. Planning for the voyage, however, showed a dearth of adequate facilities there, as well. The main sea channel of the <a "/kiwi/Mare_Island_Navy_Yard" class="mw-redirect" title="Mare Island Navy Yard">Mare Island Navy Yard</a> near San Francisco was too shallow for battleships, which left only the <a "/kiwi/Puget_Sound_Navy_Yard" class="mw-redirect" title="Puget Sound Navy Yard">Puget Sound Navy Yard</a> in <a "/kiwi/Bremerton,_Washington" title="Bremerton, Washington">Bremerton, Washington</a>, for refit and repair. The <a "/kiwi/San_Francisco_Naval_Shipyard" title="San Francisco Naval Shipyard">Hunter's Point civilian yard</a> in San Francisco could accommodate capital ships, but had been closed due to lack of use and was slated for demolition. President Roosevelt ordered that Hunter's Point be reopened, facilities be brought up to date, and the fleet to report there.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200730.E2.80.9331_12-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200730.E2.80.9331-12">[12]</a></sup></p>
<p>Also, the question of adequate resources for coaling existed. This was not an issue when the Atlantic fleet cruised the Atlantic or Caribbean, as fuel supplies were readily available. However, the United States did not enjoy a worldwide network of coaling stations like that of Great Britain, nor did it have an adequate supply of auxiliary vessels for resupply. During the SpanishAmerican War, this lack had forced Admiral <a "/kiwi/George_Dewey" title="George Dewey">George Dewey</a> to buy a collier-load of British coal in Hong Kong before the <a "/kiwi/Battle_of_Manila_Bay" title="Battle of Manila Bay">Battle of Manila Bay</a> to ensure his squadron would not be stranded at sea. The need had been even more pressing for the Russian Baltic Fleet during its long deployment during the Russo-Japanese War, not just for the distance it was to sail, but also because, as a belligerent nation in wartime, most neutral ports were closed to it due to international law. While the lack of support vessels was pointed out and a vigorous program of building such ships suggested by Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/George_W._Melville" title="George W. Melville">George W. Melville</a>, who had served as chief of the Bureau of Equipment, his words were not heeded adequately until World War II.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200731.E2.80.9334_13-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200731.E2.80.9334-13">[13]</a></sup></p>
<p>Federal regulations that restricted resupply vessels for Navy ships to those flying the United States flag, complicated by the lack of an adequate American merchant marine, proved another obstacle. Roosevelt initially offered to award Navy supply contracts to American skippers whose bids exceeded those of foreign captains by less than 50%.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup> Many carriers declined this offer because they could not obtain enough cargo to cover the cost of the return trip. Two months before the fleet sailed, Roosevelt ordered the Navy Department to contract 38 ships to supply the fleet with the 125,000 tons of coal it would need to steam from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to San Francisco. Only eight of these were American-registered; most of the other 30 were of British registry. This development was potentially awkward, since part of the mission was to impress Japan with the perception of overwhelming American naval power. Britain had become a military ally of Japan in 1905, which obligated it to aid Japan should a foreign power declare war against it. Technically, the list of potential combatants included the United States. The British government decided to play both sides of the political fence with the intent of moderating any Japanese-American friction that might arise.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200734.E2.80.9335_15-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200734.E2.80.9335-15">[15]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Voyage">Voyage</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Voyage">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<a "/kiwi/USS_Kansas_(BB-21)" title="USS Kansas (BB-21)"><i>Kansas</i></a> sails ahead of <a "/kiwi/USS_Vermont_(BB-20)" title="USS Vermont (BB-20)"><i>Vermont</i></a> as the fleet leaves <a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads" title="Hampton Roads">Hampton Roads</a>, <a "/kiwi/Virginia" title="Virginia">Virginia</a>, on 16 December 1907.</div>
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A 1908 postcard welcoming the fleet to Australia</div>
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<i>The Fleet Passing Through the Magellan Straits</i> by naval artist <a "/kiwi/Henry_Reuterdahl" title="Henry Reuterdahl">Henry Reuterdahl</a>, who traveled with the fleet on USS <i>Culgoa</i></div>
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<p>As the <a "/kiwi/Panama_Canal" title="Panama Canal">Panama Canal</a> was not yet complete, the fleet had to pass through the <a "/kiwi/Straits_of_Magellan" class="mw-redirect" title="Straits of Magellan">Straits of Magellan</a>. The scope of such an operation was unprecedented in U.S. history, as ships had to sail from all points of the compass to rendezvous points and proceed according to a carefully orchestrated, well-conceived plan. It involved almost the entire operational capability of the U.S. Navy. Unlike the formidable obstacles that had faced the Russian fleet<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-16">[nb 1]</a></sup> on its voyage from the <a "/kiwi/Baltic_Sea" title="Baltic Sea">Baltic</a> to the <a "/kiwi/Pacific_Ocean" title="Pacific Ocean">Pacific</a>, which eventually led to its destruction <a "/kiwi/Battle_of_Tsushima" title="Battle of Tsushima">by the Japanese</a> in 1905,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-17">[16]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-18">[17]</a></sup> the U.S. effort benefited from a peaceful environment which aided the coordination of ship movements. The voyage itself eventually set a number of <a "/kiwi/World_record" title="World record">world records</a> including sheer number of ships simultaneously circumnavigating the earth.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Citation_needed" title="encarta2018.ga:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (March 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>In port after port, citizens in the thousands turned out to see and greet the fleet. In 1908, the Great White Fleet visited <a "/kiwi/Monterey,_California" title="Monterey, California">Monterey, California</a>, from 14 May. The nearby <a "/kiwi/Hotel_Del_Monte" title="Hotel Del Monte">Hotel Del Monte</a> in <a "/kiwi/Del_Monte,_California" title="Del Monte, California">Del Monte, California</a>, hosted a grand ball for the officers of the fleet. Years later, the Del Monte was taken over by the U.S. Navy in 1942 for use as the Del Monte Pre-Flight School for pilots and after World War II the <a "/kiwi/Naval_Postgraduate_School" title="Naval Postgraduate School">Naval Postgraduate School</a> was relocated there.</p>
<p>In Australia, the arrival of the Great White Fleet on 20 August 1908 was used to encourage support for the forming of <a "/kiwi/Royal_Australian_Navy" title="Royal Australian Navy">Australia's own navy</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-19">[18]</a></sup> When the fleet sailed into <a "/kiwi/Yokohama" title="Yokohama">Yokohama</a>, the Japanese went to extraordinary lengths to show that their country desired peace with the U.S.; thousands of Japanese schoolchildren waved <a "/kiwi/Flag_of_the_United_States" title="Flag of the United States">American flags</a> to greet navy officials as they came ashore.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Citation_needed" title="encarta2018.ga:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> In <a "/kiwi/Sicily" title="Sicily">Sicily</a>, the sailors helped in recovery operations after the <a "/kiwi/1908_Messina_earthquake" title="1908 Messina earthquake">1908 Messina earthquake</a>.</p>
<p>In February 1909, Roosevelt was in <a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads,_Virginia" class="mw-redirect" title="Hampton Roads, Virginia">Hampton Roads, Virginia</a>, to witness the triumphant return of the fleet from its long voyage, and what he saw as a fitting finish for his administration. To the officers and men of the fleet, Roosevelt said, "Other nations may do what you have done, but they'll have to follow you." This parting act of <a "/kiwi/Grand_strategy" title="Grand strategy">grand strategy</a> by Roosevelt greatly expanded foreign respect for the United States, as well as its role in the international arena.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a "/kiwi/encarta2018.ga:Citation_needed" title="encarta2018.ga:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Fleet_composition">Fleet composition</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Fleet composition">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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President <a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Theodore Roosevelt</a> (on the 12-inch (30&nbsp;cm) gun turret at right) addresses officers and crewmen on <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a>, in <a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads,_Virginia" class="mw-redirect" title="Hampton Roads, Virginia">Hampton Roads, Virginia</a>, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise around the world, 22 February 1909.</div>
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<p>The fourteen-month-long voyage was a grand pageant of American sea power. The squadrons were manned by 14,000 sailors. They covered some 43,000 nautical miles (80,000&nbsp;km) and made twenty port calls on six continents. The fleet was impressive, especially as a demonstration of American industrial prowess (all eighteen ships had been constructed since the <a "/kiwi/Spanish%E2%80%93American_War" title="SpanishAmerican War">SpanishAmerican War</a>), but already the battleships represented the suddenly outdated '<a "/kiwi/Pre-dreadnought_battleship" title="Pre-dreadnought battleship">pre-dreadnought</a>' type of capital ship, as the first battleships of the revolutionary <a "/kiwi/Dreadnought-class_battleship" class="mw-redirect" title="Dreadnought-class battleship"><i>Dreadnought</i>&nbsp;class</a> had just entered service, and the U.S. Navy's first <a "/kiwi/Dreadnought" title="Dreadnought">dreadnought</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_South_Carolina_(BB-26)" title="USS South Carolina (BB-26)"><i>South Carolina</i></a>, was already fitting out. The two oldest ships in the fleet, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kearsarge_(BB-5)" title="USS Kearsarge (BB-5)"><i>Kearsarge</i></a> and <a "/kiwi/USS_Kentucky_(BB-6)" title="USS Kentucky (BB-6)"><i>Kentucky</i></a>, were already obsolete and unfit for battle; two others, <a "/kiwi/USS_Maine_(BB-10)" title="USS Maine (BB-10)"><i>Maine</i></a> and <a "/kiwi/USS_Alabama_(BB-8)" title="USS Alabama (BB-8)"><i>Alabama</i></a>, had to be detached at San Francisco because of mechanical troubles and were replaced by the <a "/kiwi/USS_Nebraska_(BB-14)" title="USS Nebraska (BB-14)"><i>Nebraska</i></a> and the <a "/kiwi/USS_Wisconsin_(BB-9)" title="USS Wisconsin (BB-9)"><i>Wisconsin</i></a>. (After repairs, <i>Alabama</i> and <i>Maine</i> completed their "own, more direct, circumnavigation of the globe" via Honolulu, Guam, Manila, Singapore, Colombo, Suez, Naples, Gibraltar, the Azores, and finally back to the United States, arriving on 20 October 1908, four months before the remainder of the fleet, which had taken a more circuitous route.)</p>
<p>The battleships were accompanied during the first leg of their voyage by a "Torpedo Flotilla" of six early <a "/kiwi/Destroyer" title="Destroyer">destroyers</a>, as well as by several auxiliary ships. The destroyers and their tender did not actually steam in company with the battleships, but followed their own itinerary from <a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads,_Virginia" class="mw-redirect" title="Hampton Roads, Virginia">Hampton Roads</a>, Virginia to San Francisco, California. Also of note is that the <a "/kiwi/Armored_cruiser" title="Armored cruiser">armored cruiser</a> <a "/kiwi/USS_Washington_(ACR-11)" title="USS Washington (ACR-11)"><i>Washington</i></a> preceded the Fleet itinerary for its first and second legs by about a month, perhaps making arrangements to later receive the Fleet.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="General_fleet_itinerary">General fleet itinerary</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: General fleet itinerary">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a> leads the way for the Great White Fleet in 1907.</div>
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The Great White Fleet arriving to a crowd at the Port of Los Angeles, 1908</div>
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Fleet Week celebrations in <a "/kiwi/Auckland" title="Auckland">Auckland</a>, New Zealand.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-20">[19]</a></sup></div>
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<p>With <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a><sup id="cite_ref-GWF-H-04_21-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-GWF-H-04-21">[20]</a></sup> as flagship under the command of Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/Robley_Dunglison_Evans" class="mw-redirect" title="Robley Dunglison Evans">Robley D. Evans</a>, the fleet sailed from Hampton Roads on 16 December 1907 for <a "/kiwi/Trinidad" title="Trinidad">Trinidad</a>, <a "/kiwi/British_West_Indies" title="British West Indies">British West Indies</a>, thence to <a "/kiwi/Rio_de_Janeiro" title="Rio de Janeiro">Rio de Janeiro</a>, Brazil; <a "/kiwi/Punta_Arenas,_Chile" class="mw-redirect" title="Punta Arenas, Chile">Punta Arenas</a>, Chile; <a "/kiwi/Callao" title="Callao">Callao</a>, Peru; <a "/kiwi/Magdalena_Bay" title="Magdalena Bay">Magdalena Bay</a>, Mexico, and up the <a "/kiwi/West_Coast_of_the_United_States" title="West Coast of the United States">West Coast</a>, arriving at San Francisco, 6 May 1908.</p>
<p>At San Francisco, Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/Charles_S._Sperry" class="mw-redirect" title="Charles S. Sperry">Charles S. Sperry</a> assumed command of the fleet, owing to the poor health of Admiral Evans. Also at San Francisco, the squadrons were slightly rearranged, bringing the newest and best ships in the fleet up to the First Squadron. <a "/kiwi/USS_Glacier_(AF-4)" title="USS Glacier (AF-4)"><i>Glacier</i></a> was detached and later became the supply ship of the Pacific Fleet. At this time also, <a "/kiwi/USS_Nebraska_(BB-14)" title="USS Nebraska (BB-14)"><i>Nebraska</i></a>, under Captain <a "/kiwi/Reginald_F._Nicholson" title="Reginald F. Nicholson">Reginald F. Nicholson</a>, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Wisconsin_(BB-9)" title="USS Wisconsin (BB-9)"><i>Wisconsin</i></a>, under Captain <a "/kiwi/Frank_E._Beatty" title="Frank E. Beatty">Frank E. Beatty</a>, were substituted for <a "/kiwi/USS_Maine_(BB-10)" title="USS Maine (BB-10)"><i>Maine</i></a> and <a "/kiwi/USS_Alabama_(BB-8)" title="USS Alabama (BB-8)"><i>Alabama</i></a>. In San Francisco, <a "/kiwi/USS_Minnesota_(BB-22)" title="USS Minnesota (BB-22)"><i>Minnesota</i></a> was brought forward into First Squadron, First Division and <a "/kiwi/USS_Louisiana_(BB-19)" title="USS Louisiana (BB-19)"><i>Louisiana</i></a> took her place as flagship, Second Squadron.</p>
<p>Leaving that port on 7 July 1908 the <a "/kiwi/U.S._Atlantic_Fleet" class="mw-redirect" title="U.S. Atlantic Fleet">U.S. Atlantic Fleet</a> visited <a "/kiwi/Honolulu" title="Honolulu">Honolulu</a>; <a "/kiwi/Auckland" title="Auckland">Auckland</a>, New Zealand; Sydney and <a "/kiwi/Melbourne" title="Melbourne">Melbourne</a>, Australia; <a "/kiwi/Manila" title="Manila">Manila</a>, Philippines; <a "/kiwi/Yokohama" title="Yokohama">Yokohama</a>, Japan; and <a "/kiwi/Colombo" title="Colombo">Colombo</a>, <a "/kiwi/Ceylon" class="mw-redirect" title="Ceylon">Ceylon</a>; then arriving at <a "/kiwi/Suez" title="Suez">Suez</a>, Egypt, on 3 January 1909.</p>
<p>While the fleet was in Egypt, word was received of an earthquake in <a "/kiwi/Sicily" title="Sicily">Sicily</a>, thus affording an opportunity for the United States to show its friendship to Italy by offering aid to the sufferers. <i>Connecticut</i>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Illinois_(BB-7)" title="USS Illinois (BB-7)"><i>Illinois</i></a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Culgoa_(AF-3)" class="mw-redirect" title="USS Culgoa (AF-3)"><i>Culgoa</i></a>, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Yankton_(1893)" title="USS Yankton (1893)"><i>Yankton</i></a> were dispatched to <a "/kiwi/Messina,_Italy" class="mw-redirect" title="Messina, Italy">Messina, Italy</a>, at once. The crew of <i>Illinois</i> recovered the bodies of the American <a "/kiwi/Consul_(representative)" title="Consul (representative)">consul</a>, Arthur S. Cheney, and his wife, entombed in the ruins.</p>
<p><a "/kiwi/USS_Scorpion_(PY-3)" title="USS Scorpion (PY-3)"><i>Scorpion</i></a>, the fleet's station ship at <a "/kiwi/Constantinople" title="Constantinople">Constantinople</a>, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Celtic_(AF-2)" title="USS Celtic (AF-2)"><i>Celtic</i></a>, a refrigerator ship fitted out in <a "/kiwi/New_York_(state)" class="mw-redirect" title="New York (state)">New York</a>, were hurried to Messina, relieving <i>Connecticut</i> and <i>Illinois</i>, so that they could continue on the cruise.</p>
<p>Leaving Messina on 9 January 1909, the fleet stopped at <a "/kiwi/Naples" title="Naples">Naples</a>, Italy, thence to <a "/kiwi/Gibraltar" title="Gibraltar">Gibraltar</a>, arriving at Hampton Roads on 22 February 1909. There, President Roosevelt reviewed the fleet as it passed into the roadstead.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="First_leg">First leg</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: First leg">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>From Hampton Roads to San Francisco, 14,556 nautical miles (26,958&nbsp;km).</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Itinerary">Itinerary</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Itinerary">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="kiwitable">
<tbody><tr>
<th>Port</th>
<th>Arrival</th>
<th>Departure</th>
<th>Distance to next port</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads,_Virginia" class="mw-redirect" title="Hampton Roads, Virginia">Hampton Roads</a>, Virginia</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>16 December 1907</td>
<td>1,803&nbsp;nmi (3,339&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Port_of_Spain" title="Port of Spain">Port of Spain</a>, <a "/kiwi/Trinidad" title="Trinidad">Trinidad</a></td>
<td>23 December 1907</td>
<td>29 December 1907</td>
<td>3,399&nbsp;nmi (6,295&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Rio_de_Janeiro" title="Rio de Janeiro">Rio de Janeiro</a>, Brazil</td>
<td>12 January 1908</td>
<td>21 January 1908</td>
<td>2,374&nbsp;nmi (4,397&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Punta_Arenas" title="Punta Arenas">Punta Arenas</a>, Chile</td>
<td>1 February 1908</td>
<td>7 February 1908</td>
<td>2,838&nbsp;nmi (5,256&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Callao" title="Callao">Callao</a>, Peru</td>
<td>20 February 1908</td>
<td>29 February 1908</td>
<td>3,010&nbsp;nmi (5,570&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Magdalena_Bay" title="Magdalena Bay">Magdalena Bay</a>, Mexico</td>
<td>12 March 1908</td>
<td>11 April 1908</td>
<td>1,132&nbsp;nmi (2,096&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>San Francisco, California</td>
<td>6 May 1908</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ships">Ships</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Ships">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The Fleet, First Squadron and First Division, were commanded by Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans. First Division consisted of four ships of the 1906 <a "/kiwi/Connecticut-class_battleship" title="Connecticut-class battleship"><i>Connecticut</i>&nbsp;class</a>: <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a>, the fleet's flagship, Captain <a "/kiwi/Hugo_Osterhaus" title="Hugo Osterhaus">Hugo Osterhaus</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kansas_(BB-21)" title="USS Kansas (BB-21)"><i>Kansas</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Charles_E._Vreeland" title="Charles E. Vreeland">Charles E. Vreeland</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Vermont_(BB-20)" title="USS Vermont (BB-20)"><i>Vermont</i></a>, Captain William P. Potter, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Louisiana_(BB-19)" title="USS Louisiana (BB-19)"><i>Louisiana</i></a>, Captain Richard Wainwright.</p>
<p>Second Division was commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Second Division consisted of four ships of the 1904 <a "/kiwi/Virginia-class_battleship" title="Virginia-class battleship"><i>Virginia</i>&nbsp;class</a>: <a "/kiwi/USS_Georgia_(BB-15)" title="USS Georgia (BB-15)"><i>Georgia</i></a>, the division flagship, Captain Henry McCrea, <a "/kiwi/USS_New_Jersey_(BB-16)" title="USS New Jersey (BB-16)"><i>New Jersey</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/William_Henry_Hudson_Southerland" title="William Henry Hudson Southerland">William H. H. Southerland</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Rhode_Island_(BB-17)" title="USS Rhode Island (BB-17)"><i>Rhode Island</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Joseph_B._Murdock" title="Joseph B. Murdock">Joseph B. Murdock</a>, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Virginia_(BB-13)" title="USS Virginia (BB-13)"><i>Virginia</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Seaton_Schroeder" title="Seaton Schroeder">Seaton Schroeder</a>.</p>
<p>Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/Charles_M._Thomas" class="mw-redirect" title="Charles M. Thomas">Charles M. Thomas</a>. Third Division consisted of one <i>Connecticut</i>-class ship and the three ships of the 1902 <a "/kiwi/Maine-class_battleship" title="Maine-class battleship"><i>Maine</i>&nbsp;class</a>: <a "/kiwi/USS_Minnesota_(BB-22)" title="USS Minnesota (BB-22)"><i>Minnesota</i></a>, the squadron flagship, Captain <a "/kiwi/John_Hubbard_(admiral)" title="John Hubbard (admiral)">John Hubbard</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Maine_(BB-10)" title="USS Maine (BB-10)"><i>Maine</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Giles_B._Harber" title="Giles B. Harber">Giles B. Harber</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Missouri_(BB-11)" title="USS Missouri (BB-11)"><i>Missouri</i></a>, Captain Greenlief A. Merriam, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Ohio_(BB-12)" title="USS Ohio (BB-12)"><i>Ohio</i></a>, Captain Charles W. Bartlett.</p>
<p>Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/Charles_S._Sperry" class="mw-redirect" title="Charles S. Sperry">Charles S. Sperry</a>. Fourth Division consisted of two ships of the 1901 <a "/kiwi/Illinois-class_battleship" title="Illinois-class battleship"><i>Illinois</i>&nbsp;class</a> and the two 1900 <a "/kiwi/Kearsarge-class_battleship" title="Kearsarge-class battleship"><i>Kearsarge</i>-class</a> ships: <a "/kiwi/USS_Alabama_(BB-8)" title="USS Alabama (BB-8)"><i>Alabama</i></a>, the division flagship, Captain Ten Eyck De Witt Veeder, <a "/kiwi/USS_Illinois_(BB-7)" title="USS Illinois (BB-7)"><i>Illinois</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/John_M._Bowyer" title="John M. Bowyer">John M. Bowyer</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kearsarge_(BB-5)" title="USS Kearsarge (BB-5)"><i>Kearsarge</i></a>, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Kentucky_(BB-6)" title="USS Kentucky (BB-6)"><i>Kentucky</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Walter_C._Cowles" title="Walter C. Cowles">Walter C. Cowles</a>.</p>
<p>The fleet auxiliaries consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Culgoa_(AF-3)" class="mw-redirect" title="USS Culgoa (AF-3)"><i>Culgoa</i></a> (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, <a "/kiwi/USS_Glacier_(AF-4)" title="USS Glacier (AF-4)"><i>Glacier</i></a> (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, <a "/kiwi/USS_Panther_(1889)" title="USS Panther (1889)"><i>Panther</i></a> (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson, <a "/kiwi/USS_Yankton_(1893)" title="USS Yankton (1893)"><i>Yankton</i></a> (a tender), Lieutenant Walter R. Gherardi, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Relief_(1896)" title="USS Relief (1896)"><i>Relief</i></a> (a hospital ship).</p>
<p>The "Torpedo Flotilla" of destroyers consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Hopkins_(DD-6)" title="USS Hopkins (DD-6)"><i>Hopkins</i></a>, Lieutenant Alfred G. Howe, <a "/kiwi/USS_Stewart_(DD-13)" title="USS Stewart (DD-13)"><i>Stewart</i></a>, Lieutenant Julius F. Hellweg, <a "/kiwi/USS_Hull_(DD-7)" title="USS Hull (DD-7)"><i>Hull</i></a>, Lieutenant Frank McCommon, <a "/kiwi/USS_Truxton_(DD-14)" class="mw-redirect" title="USS Truxton (DD-14)"><i>Truxton</i></a>, Lieutenant Charles S. Kerrick, <a "/kiwi/USS_Lawrence_(DD-8)" title="USS Lawrence (DD-8)"><i>Lawrence</i></a>, Lieutenant Ernest Friedrick, <a "/kiwi/USS_Whipple_(DD-15)" title="USS Whipple (DD-15)"><i>Whipple</i></a>, Lieutenant Hutch I. Cone, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Arethusa_(AO-7)" title="USS Arethusa (AO-7)"><i>Arethusa</i></a> (a tender), Commander <a "/kiwi/Albert_W._Grant" title="Albert W. Grant">Albert W. Grant</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Second_leg">Second leg</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Second leg">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Itinerary_2">Itinerary</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Itinerary">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:402px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Seattle_Great_White_Fleet_Sign.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
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<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Seattle_Great_White_Fleet_Sign.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Historical marker in Seattle that notes the 1908 arrival of the Fleet.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Virginia_(BB13)._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor,_Virginia_bow_on,_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif/lossy-page1-220px-Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif/lossy-page1-330px-Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif/lossy-page1-440px-Virginia_%28BB13%29._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor%2C_Virginia_bow_on%2C_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3000" data-file-height="2286" width="220" height="168"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:Virginia_(BB13)._Fleet_in_San_Francisco_Harbor,_Virginia_bow_on,_1908_-_NARA_-_512999.tif" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
The fleet in San Francisco: <i>Virginia</i> is closest to the camera, with the other ships anchored nearby.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:GWF_Trinidad,_CA_1908.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
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<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a "/kiwi/File:GWF_Trinidad,_CA_1908.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Great White Fleet passing Trinidad Head, CA 1908</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The second leg of the voyage was from San Francisco to <a "/kiwi/Puget_Sound" title="Puget Sound">Puget Sound</a> and back. On 23 May 1908 the 16-battleships of the Great White Fleet steamed into the Puget Sound where they separated to visit six Washington state ports: <a "/kiwi/Bellingham,_Washington" title="Bellingham, Washington">Bellingham</a>, <a "/kiwi/Bremerton,_Washington" title="Bremerton, Washington">Bremerton</a>, <a "/kiwi/Port_Angeles,_Washington" title="Port Angeles, Washington">Port Angeles</a>, <a "/kiwi/Port_Townsend,_Washington" title="Port Townsend, Washington">Port Townsend</a>, <a "/kiwi/Seattle" title="Seattle">Seattle</a> and <a "/kiwi/Tacoma,_Washington" title="Tacoma, Washington">Tacoma</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-22">[21]</a></sup> The fleet arrived in Seattle on 23 May and departed 27 May 1908.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-23">[22]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ships_2">Ships</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Ships">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The Fleet, First Squadron, and First Division were commanded by Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry. First Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a>, the Fleet's flagship, Captain Hugo Osterhaus <a "/kiwi/USS_Kansas_(BB-21)" title="USS Kansas (BB-21)"><i>Kansas</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Charles_E._Vreeland" title="Charles E. Vreeland">Charles E. Vreeland</a> <a "/kiwi/USS_Minnesota_(BB-22)" title="USS Minnesota (BB-22)"><i>Minnesota</i></a>, Captain John Hubbard <a "/kiwi/USS_Vermont_(BB-20)" title="USS Vermont (BB-20)"><i>Vermont</i></a>, Captain William P. Potter.</p>
<p>Second Division was commanded by Rear Admiral <a "/kiwi/Richard_Wainwright_(Spanish%E2%80%93American_War_naval_officer)" title="Richard Wainwright (SpanishAmerican War naval officer)">Richard Wainwright</a>. Second Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Georgia_(BB-15)" title="USS Georgia (BB-15)"><i>Georgia</i></a>, the Division flagship, Captain Edward F. Qualtrough, <a "/kiwi/USS_Nebraska_(BB-14)" title="USS Nebraska (BB-14)"><i>Nebraska</i></a>, Captain Reginald F. Nicholson, replacing her sister <i>Virginia</i>, <a "/kiwi/USS_New_Jersey_(BB-16)" title="USS New Jersey (BB-16)"><i>New Jersey</i></a>, Captain William H.H. Southerland, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Rhode_Island_(BB-17)" title="USS Rhode Island (BB-17)"><i>Rhode Island</i></a>, Captain Joseph B. Murdock.</p>
<p>Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Third Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Louisiana_(BB-19)" title="USS Louisiana (BB-19)"><i>Louisiana</i></a>, the Squadron's flagship, Captain Kossuth Niles, <a "/kiwi/USS_Virginia_(BB-13)" title="USS Virginia (BB-13)"><i>Virginia</i></a>, Captain Alexander Sharp, <a "/kiwi/USS_Missouri_(BB-11)" title="USS Missouri (BB-11)"><i>Missouri</i></a>, Captain Robert M. Doyle, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Ohio_(BB-12)" title="USS Ohio (BB-12)"><i>Ohio</i></a>, Captain <a "/kiwi/Thomas_B._Howard" title="Thomas B. Howard">Thomas B. Howard</a>.</p>
<p>Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder. Fourth Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Wisconsin_(BB-9)" title="USS Wisconsin (BB-9)"><i>Wisconsin</i></a>, the Division flagship, Captain Frank E. Beatty, which replaced her sister <i>Alabama</i>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Illinois_(BB-7)" title="USS Illinois (BB-7)"><i>Illinois</i></a>, Captain John M. Bowyer, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kearsarge_(BB-5)" title="USS Kearsarge (BB-5)"><i>Kearsarge</i></a>, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Kentucky_(BB-6)" title="USS Kentucky (BB-6)"><i>Kentucky</i></a>, Captain Walter C. Cowles.</p>
<p>The Fleet Auxiliaries were <a "/kiwi/USS_Culgoa_(AF-3)" class="mw-redirect" title="USS Culgoa (AF-3)"><i>Culgoa</i></a> (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, <a "/kiwi/USS_Yankton_(1893)" title="USS Yankton (1893)"><i>Yankton</i></a> (a tender), Lieutenant Commander <a "/kiwi/Charles_B._McVay,_Jr." title="Charles B. McVay, Jr.">Charles B. McVay</a>, <a "/kiwi/USS_Glacier_(AF-4)" title="USS Glacier (AF-4)"><i>Glacier</i></a> (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, <a "/kiwi/USS_Relief_(1896)" title="USS Relief (1896)"><i>Relief</i></a> (a hospital ship), Surgeon Charles F. Stokes, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Panther_(1889)" title="USS Panther (1889)"><i>Panther</i></a> (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Third_leg">Third leg</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Third leg">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>From San Francisco to Manila, 16,336 nautical miles (30,254&nbsp;km).</p>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:1908_USA_Naval_Visit_@_Auckland_Bronze_Medal.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
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1908 bronze medallion for the Great White Fleet's visit to Auckland, New Zealand</div>
</div>
</div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Itinerary_3">Itinerary</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Itinerary">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="kiwitable">
<tbody><tr>
<th>Port</th>
<th>Arrival</th>
<th>Departure</th>
<th>Distance to next port</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>San Francisco</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>7 July 1908</td>
<td>2,126&nbsp;nmi (3,937&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Honolulu" title="Honolulu">Honolulu</a>, Hawaii</td>
<td>16 July 1908</td>
<td>22 July 1908</td>
<td>3,870&nbsp;nmi (7,170&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Auckland" title="Auckland">Auckland</a>, New Zealand</td>
<td>9 August 1908</td>
<td>15 August 1908</td>
<td>1,307&nbsp;nmi (2,421&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Sydney, Australia</td>
<td>20 August 1908</td>
<td>28 August 1908</td>
<td>&nbsp; 601&nbsp;nmi (1,113&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Melbourne" title="Melbourne">Melbourne</a>, Australia</td>
<td>29 August 1908</td>
<td>5 September 1908</td>
<td>1,368&nbsp;nmi (2,534&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Great_White_Fleet_in_Albany,_Western_Australia_in_1908" title="Great White Fleet in Albany, Western Australia in 1908">Albany, Western Australia</a></td>
<td>11 September 1908</td>
<td>18 September 1908</td>
<td>3,458&nbsp;nmi (6,404&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Manila" title="Manila">Manila</a>, <a "/kiwi/Insular_Government_of_the_Philippine_Islands" title="Insular Government of the Philippine Islands">Philippine Islands</a></td>
<td>2 October 1908</td>
<td>9 October 1908</td>
<td>1,795&nbsp;nmi (3,324&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Yokohama" title="Yokohama">Yokohama</a>, <a "/kiwi/Empire_of_Japan" title="Empire of Japan">Japan</a></td>
<td>18 October 1908</td>
<td>25 October 1908</td>
<td>1,811&nbsp;nmi (3,354&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Xiamen" title="Xiamen">Amoy</a>, <a "/kiwi/Qing_dynasty" title="Qing dynasty">China</a><br>
(Second Squadron)</td>
<td>29 October 1908</td>
<td>5 November 1908</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Manila" title="Manila">Manila</a>, <a "/kiwi/Insular_Government_of_the_Philippine_Islands" title="Insular Government of the Philippine Islands">Philippine Islands</a><br>
(First Squadron)</td>
<td>31 October 1908</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Manila" title="Manila">Manila</a>, <a "/kiwi/Insular_Government_of_the_Philippine_Islands" title="Insular Government of the Philippine Islands">Philippine Islands</a><br>
(Second Squadron)</td>
<td>7 November 1908</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ships_3">Ships</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Ships">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The Fleet, First Squadron, and First Division were commanded by Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry. First Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Connecticut_(BB-18)" title="USS Connecticut (BB-18)"><i>Connecticut</i></a>, the Fleet's flagship, Captain Hugo Osterhaus, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kansas_(BB-21)" title="USS Kansas (BB-21)"><i>Kansas</i></a>, Captain Charles E. Vreeland, <a "/kiwi/USS_Minnesota_(BB-22)" title="USS Minnesota (BB-22)"><i>Minnesota</i></a>, Captain John Hubbard, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Vermont_(BB-20)" title="USS Vermont (BB-20)"><i>Vermont</i></a>, Captain William P. Potter.</p>
<p>Second Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Georgia_(BB-15)" title="USS Georgia (BB-15)"><i>Georgia</i></a>, the Division flagship, Captain Edward F. Qualtrough, <a "/kiwi/USS_Nebraska_(BB-14)" title="USS Nebraska (BB-14)"><i>Nebraska</i></a>, Captain Reginald F. Nicholson, <a "/kiwi/USS_New_Jersey_(BB-16)" title="USS New Jersey (BB-16)"><i>New Jersey</i></a>, Captain William H.H. Southerland, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Rhode_Island_(BB-17)" title="USS Rhode Island (BB-17)"><i>Rhode Island</i></a>, Captain Joseph B. Murdock.</p>
<p>The Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Third Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Louisiana_(BB-19)" title="USS Louisiana (BB-19)"><i>Louisiana</i></a>, the Squadron flagship, Captain Kossuth Niles, <a "/kiwi/USS_Virginia_(BB-13)" title="USS Virginia (BB-13)"><i>Virginia</i></a>, Captain Alexander Sharp, <a "/kiwi/USS_Missouri_(BB-11)" title="USS Missouri (BB-11)"><i>Missouri</i></a>, Captain Robert M. Doyle, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Ohio_(BB-12)" title="USS Ohio (BB-12)"><i>Ohio</i></a>, Captain Thomas B. Howard.</p>
<p>Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder. Fourth Division consisted of <a "/kiwi/USS_Wisconsin_(BB-9)" title="USS Wisconsin (BB-9)"><i>Wisconsin</i></a>, the Division flagship, Captain Frank E. Beatty, <a "/kiwi/USS_Illinois_(BB-7)" title="USS Illinois (BB-7)"><i>Illinois</i></a>, Captain John M. Bowyer, <a "/kiwi/USS_Kearsarge_(BB-5)" title="USS Kearsarge (BB-5)"><i>Kearsarge</i></a>, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Kentucky_(BB-6)" title="USS Kentucky (BB-6)"><i>Kentucky</i></a>, Captain Walter C. Cowles.</p>
<p>The Fleet Auxiliaries were <a "/kiwi/USS_Culgoa_(AF-3)" class="mw-redirect" title="USS Culgoa (AF-3)"><i>Culgoa</i></a> (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, <a "/kiwi/USS_Yankton_(1893)" title="USS Yankton (1893)"><i>Yankton</i></a> (a tender), Lieutenant Commander Charles B. McVay, <a "/kiwi/USS_Glacier_(AF-4)" title="USS Glacier (AF-4)"><i>Glacier</i></a> (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, <a "/kiwi/USS_Relief_(1896)" title="USS Relief (1896)"><i>Relief</i></a> (a hospital ship), Surgeon Charles F. Stokes, and <a "/kiwi/USS_Panther_(1889)" title="USS Panther (1889)"><i>Panther</i></a> (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Final_leg">Final leg</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Final leg">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg/220px-Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg" class="thumb" srcset="upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg/330px-Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.kiwimediaencarta2018.ga/kiwipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg/440px-Great_White_Fleet_return2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4495" data-file-height="3230" width="220" height="158"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
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Political cartoon from <i><a "/kiwi/The_New_York_Herald" class="mw-redirect" title="The New York Herald">The New York Herald</a></i>, 22 February 1909. <a "/kiwi/Uncle_Sam" title="Uncle Sam">Uncle Sam</a>, <a "/kiwi/George_Washington" title="George Washington">George Washington</a> and <a "/kiwi/Theodore_Roosevelt" title="Theodore Roosevelt">Theodore Roosevelt</a> welcome the Great White Fleet home to <a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads" title="Hampton Roads">Hampton Roads</a>, Virginia.</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The final leg ran from Manila to Hampton Roads, 12,455 nautical miles (23,067&nbsp;km).</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Itinerary_4">Itinerary</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Itinerary">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="kiwitable">
<tbody><tr>
<th>Port</th>
<th>Arrival</th>
<th>Departure</th>
<th>Distance to next port</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Manila" title="Manila">Manila</a>, <a "/kiwi/Insular_Government_of_the_Philippine_Islands" title="Insular Government of the Philippine Islands">Philippine Islands</a></td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>1 December 1908</td>
<td>2,985&nbsp;nmi (5,528&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Colombo" title="Colombo">Colombo</a>, <a "/kiwi/British_Ceylon" title="British Ceylon">Ceylon</a></td>
<td>13 December 1908</td>
<td>20 December 1908</td>
<td>3,448&nbsp;nmi (6,386&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Suez" title="Suez">Suez</a>, Egypt</td>
<td>3 January 1909</td>
<td>46 January 1909</td>
<td>2,443&nbsp;nmi (4,524&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Gibraltar" title="Gibraltar">Gibraltar</a></td>
<td>31 January 1 February 1909</td>
<td>6 February 1909</td>
<td>3,579&nbsp;nmi (6,628&nbsp;km)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a "/kiwi/Hampton_Roads" title="Hampton Roads">Hampton Roads</a>, <a "/kiwi/Virginia" title="Virginia">Virginia</a></td>
<td>22 February 1909</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Experience_gained">Experience gained</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Experience gained">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The cruise of the Great White Fleet provided practical experience for US naval personnel in sea duty and ship handling. It also showed the viability of US warships for long-range operations as no major mechanical mishaps occurred. However, while the cruise uncovered design flaws, it did not test the abilities to engage in battle fleet action. In fact, the success of the deployment might have helped obscure design deficiencies that were not addressed until <a "/kiwi/World_War_I" title="World War I">World War I</a>. These included excessive draft, low armor belts, large turret openings and exposed ammunition hoists.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford20086_24-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrawford20086-24">[23]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Effects_on_US_capital_ship_design">Effects on US capital ship design</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Effects on US capital ship design">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>While the capital ships of the Great White Fleet were already obsolescent in light of the "big gun" revolution ushered in by the construction of <a "/kiwi/HMS_Dreadnought_(1906)" title="HMS Dreadnought (1906)">HMS&nbsp;<i>Dreadnought</i></a>, their behavior at sea furnished valuable information that affected future construction. For instance, in terms of seaworthiness, all the capital ships in the fleet proved wet in all but the calmest seas, which led to the flared bows of subsequent U.S. battleships, increased freeboard forward and such spray-reducing measures as the elimination of bill-boards for anchors and gun <a "/kiwi/Sponson" title="Sponson">sponsons</a>. Increased freeboard was needed; this and related considerations demanded increases in beam and overall size. Between the <a "/kiwi/Florida-class_battleship" title="Florida-class battleship"><i>Florida</i>-class&nbsp;battleships</a>, the last American capital ships completed before data from the cruise became available, and the <a "/kiwi/Wyoming-class_battleship" title="Wyoming-class battleship"><i>Wyoming</i>&nbsp;class</a>, the first designed after this data was received, displacement (and, as a result, cost) per ship increased by one third.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.9385_25-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.9385-25">[24]</a></sup></p>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a "/kiwi/File:Kosmos_esquadra_americana_2.jpg" class=""><img alt="" "
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<div class="thumbcaption">
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12 January 1908 Arrival at Rio de Janeiro Fleet enters Guanabara Bay</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Deficiencies in seaworthiness in turn reduced the battle-worthiness of the fleet. Turret heights for main armament proved too low and needed to be raised. Secondary armament was useless at speed and especially in trade-wind conditions (with the wind moving over the sea at 10 knots (19&nbsp;km/h) or greater) and needed to be moved much higher in the hull. Improved placement began with the <i>Wyoming</i>-class battleships and was further refined in the <a "/kiwi/Nevada-class_battleship" title="Nevada-class battleship"><i>Nevada</i>&nbsp;class</a>. Casemates for the bow 3-inch guns in the newer pre-dreadnoughts were untenable due to wetness and were removed. Another discovery was that, even when fully loaded, the bottom of the battleships' side armor was visibleand the ships thus vulnerable to shells that might hit beneath it to reach their machinery and magazinesin smooth to moderate seas. The profile of crests and troughs in some ships contributed to this problem. Admiral Evans concluded that the standard 8-foot (2.4&nbsp;m) width of belt armor to be inadequate.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.939_26-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.939-26">[25]</a></sup></p>
<p>One other necessity the cruise outlined was the need for tactical homogeneity. Before the cruise, critics such as then-Captain <a "/kiwi/William_Sims" title="William Sims">William Sims</a> (to whom President Roosevelt listened) had argued that American warship design had remained too conservative and precluded the level of efficiency needed for the fleet to function as an effective unit. The cruise proved the charge true. This would eventually lead to the building of <a "/kiwi/Standard_type_battleship" class="mw-redirect" title="Standard type battleship">standard type battleships</a> in the U.S. Navy. When President Roosevelt convened the 1908 Newport Conference of the <a "/kiwi/Naval_War_College" title="Naval War College">Naval War College</a>, he placed responsibility for U.S. battleship design on the <a "/kiwi/General_Board_of_the_United_States_Navy" title="General Board of the United States Navy">General Board of the United States Navy</a>. This gave line officers and planners direct input and control over warship design, a pattern which has persisted to the present day.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.2C_82_27-0" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.2C_82-27">[26]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Effects_on_fleet_operations">Effects on fleet operations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Effects on fleet operations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Experience gained by the cruise led to improvements in formation steaming, coal economy and morale. Gunnery exercises doubled the fleet's accuracy. However, the mission also underlined the fleet's dependence on foreign colliers and the need for coaling stations and auxiliary ships for coaling and resupply.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford20086_24-1" class="reference"><a "#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrawford20086-24">[23]</a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a "/kiwi/Big_Stick_ideology" title="Big Stick ideology">Big Stick ideology</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Peace_through_strength" title="Peace through strength">Peace through strength</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/List_of_circumnavigations" title="List of circumnavigations">List of circumnavigations</a></li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Operation_Sandblast" title="Operation Sandblast">Operation Sandblast</a>, a Cold War circumnavigation by the US Navy with a submarine</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Operation_Sea_Orbit" title="Operation Sea Orbit">Operation Sea Orbit</a>, a Cold War circumnavigation by the world's first all-nuclear squadron</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Exercise_Summer_Pulse" title="Exercise Summer Pulse">Exercise Summer Pulse</a>, a worldwide test of the U.S. Navy's Fleet Response Plan (FRP)</li>
<li><a "/kiwi/Cruise_of_the_Special_Service_Squadron" title="Cruise of the Special Service Squadron">Cruise of the Special Service Squadron</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p><b>Notes</b></p>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-16"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The Russian fleet had no coaling stations and foreign coaling stations were off limits to them during their voyage. The fleet had to refuel at sea via German contractor coaling vessals or on the sly at French ports.(Busch 86, 87)</span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<p><b>Citations</b></p>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-GWF-H-00-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-00_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">JO2 [Journalist Second Class] Mike McKinley (1 April 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/c/cruise-great-white-fleet-mckinley.html">"Cruise of the Great White Fleet"</a>. <a "/kiwi/Naval_History_and_Heritage_Command" title="Naval History and Heritage Command">Naval History and Heritage Command</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 November</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.au=JO2+%5BJournalist+Second+Class%5D+Mike+McKinley&amp;rft.btitle=Cruise+of+the+Great+White+Fleet&amp;rft.date=2015-04-01&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=Naval+History+and+Heritage+Command&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.history.navy.mil%2Fresearch%2Flibrary%2Fonline-reading-room%2Ftitle-list-alphabetically%2Fc%2Fcruise-great-white-fleet-mckinley.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-GWF-H-01-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-01_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq42-1.htm">The Great White Fleet</a> by Department of the Navy
Naval History and Heritage Command <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://webarchive.loc.tits/all/20120204131704/http%3A//www%2Ehistory%2Enavy%2Emil/faqs/faq42%2D1%2Ehtm">Archived copy</a> at the <a "/kiwi/Library_of_Congress" title="Library of Congress">Library of Congress</a> (4 February 2012).</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-3"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">John Mack Faragher [et al.] <i>Out of Many: a history of the American People</i>. Prentice Hall, 2012. p. 574.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196515.E2.80.9321-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196515.E2.80.9321_4-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFHart1965">Hart 1965</a>, pp.&nbsp;1521.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-GWF-H-03-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-03_5-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1900s/p/greatwhitefleet.htm">Circling the Globe: The Voyage of the Great White Fleet</a> by Kennedy Hickman, About.com</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196521-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196521_6-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFHart1965">Hart 1965</a>, p.&nbsp;21.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-peacefulsea-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-peacefulsea_7-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-peacefulsea_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">The Peaceful Sea. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.thepeacefulsea.com/great-white-fleet.html">"The Great White Fleet Visits Japan 1908"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 February</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.au=The+Peaceful+Sea&amp;rft.btitle=The+Great+White+Fleet+Visits+Japan+1908&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thepeacefulsea.com%2Fgreat-white-fleet.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-8"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Global Security Org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.globalsecurityencarta2018.ga/military/agency/navy/great-white-fleet.htm">"Great White Fleet (16 December 1907 22 February 1909)"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 February</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.au=Global+Security+Org&amp;rft.btitle=Great+White+Fleet+%2816+December+1907+%E2%80%93+22+February+1909%29&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.globalsecurityencarta2018.ga%2Fmilitary%2Fagency%2Fnavy%2Fgreat-white-fleet.htm&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196524-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196524_9-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196524_9-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFHart1965">Hart 1965</a>, p.&nbsp;24.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrawford200812-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford200812_10-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFCrawford2008">Crawford 2008</a>, p.&nbsp;12.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHart196523.E2.80.9324-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHart196523.E2.80.9324_11-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFHart1965">Hart 1965</a>, pp.&nbsp;2324.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200730.E2.80.9331-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200730.E2.80.9331_12-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFAlbertson2007">Albertson 2007</a>, pp.&nbsp;3031.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200731.E2.80.9334-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200731.E2.80.9334_13-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFAlbertson2007">Albertson 2007</a>, pp.&nbsp;3134.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-14"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">James R. Reckner, <i>Teddy Roosevelt's Great White Fleet</i>, 2001, p. 16</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200734.E2.80.9335-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAlbertson200734.E2.80.9335_15-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFAlbertson2007">Albertson 2007</a>, pp.&nbsp;3435.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-17"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Busch p. 86, 87</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-18"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Semenov p. 16, 17</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-19"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">"Great White Fleet revisits Sydney Harbour". <i>Afloat</i>. Afloat Publications Pty Ltd. 1 September 2008. p.&nbsp;40.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.atitle=Great+White+Fleet+revisits+Sydney+Harbour&amp;rft.date=2008-09-01&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Afloat&amp;rft.pages=40&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span style="display:none;font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|access-date=</code> requires <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|url=</code> (<a "/kiwi/Help:CS1_errors#accessdate_missing_url" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-20"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline&amp;new_date=9/8">The US 'Great White Fleet' arrives in Auckland</a> (from the 'NZ History' website, retrieved 3 August 2007)</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-GWF-H-04-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-GWF-H-04_21-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.countyhistoryencarta2018.ga/gwf/gwf/index.html">Great White Fleet</a> USS Connecticut, Battleship BB-18</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-22"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "web.archiveencarta2018.ga/web/20150519181717/http://www.navy.mil/gwf/pugetsound.htm">"The Great White Fleet Puget Sound"</a>. <i>navy.mil</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "http://www.navy.mil/gwf/pugetsound.htm">the original</a> on 19 May 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">12 February</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.atitle=The+Great+White+Fleet+%E2%80%93+Puget+Sound&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=navy.mil&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.navy.mil%2Fgwf%2Fpugetsound.htm&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-23"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=OVtFbZqPskgC&amp;lpg=PA54&amp;ots=En0kweqzfQ&amp;dq=great%20white%20fleet%20May%2027,%201908&amp;pg=PA54#v=onepage&amp;q=great%20white%20fleet%20May%2027,%201908&amp;f=false">"The World Cruise of the Great White Fleet: Honoring 100 Years of Global Partnerships and Security"</a>. Government Printing Office<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">12 February</span> 2017</span> via Google Books.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.btitle=The+World+Cruise+of+the+Great+White+Fleet%3A+Honoring+100+Years+of+Global+Partnerships+and+Security&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.pub=Government+Printing+Office&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DOVtFbZqPskgC%26lpg%3DPA54%26ots%3DEn0kweqzfQ%26dq%3Dgreat%2520white%2520fleet%2520May%252027%2C%25201908%26pg%3DPA54%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dgreat%2520white%2520fleet%2520May%252027%2C%25201908%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrawford20086-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford20086_24-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up to: </span><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrawford20086_24-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFCrawford2008">Crawford 2008</a>, p.&nbsp;6.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.9385-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.9385_25-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFFriedman1985">Friedman 1985</a>, pp.&nbsp;7585.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.939-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.E2.80.939_26-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFFriedman1985">Friedman 1985</a>, pp.&nbsp;759.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.2C_82-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a "#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedman198575.2C_82_27-0"><span class="cite-accessibility-label">Jump up </span>^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a "#CITEREFFriedman1985">Friedman 1985</a>, pp.&nbsp;75, 82.</span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Bibliography">Bibliography</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Bibliography">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="World_Cruise_of_the_Great_White_Fleet">World Cruise of the Great White Fleet</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: World Cruise of the Great White Fleet">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul>
<li><cite id="CITEREFAlbertson2007" class="citation book">Albertson, Mark (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/books?id=1_ApYoXy6kQC&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;dq=great+white+fleet&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=5cmXUOe5IKm1ygG3h4CADQ&amp;ved=0CDsQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&amp;q=great%20white%20fleet&amp;f=false"><i>They'll Have to Follow You Home!: The Triumph of the Great White Fleet</i></a>. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing &amp; Enterprises LLC. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/978-1-60462-145-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60462-145-7">978-1-60462-145-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark&amp;rft.aulast=Albertson&amp;rft.btitle=They%27ll+Have+to+Follow+You+Home%21%3A+The+Triumph+of+the+Great+White+Fleet&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-60462-145-7&amp;rft.place=Mustang%2C+Oklahoma&amp;rft.pub=Tate+Publishing+%26+Enterprises+LLC&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D1_ApYoXy6kQC%26printsec%3Dfrontcover%26dq%3Dgreat%2Bwhite%2Bfleet%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ei%3D5cmXUOe5IKm1ygG3h4CADQ%26ved%3D0CDsQ6AEwBQ%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dgreat%2520white%2520fleet%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFCrawford2008" class="citation book">Crawford, M. J. (2008). <i>The World Cruise of the Great White Fleet: Honoring 100 Years of Global Partnerships and Security</i>. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/9780945274599" title="Special:BookSources/9780945274599">9780945274599</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=M.+J.&amp;rft.aulast=Crawford&amp;rft.btitle=The+World+Cruise+of+the+Great+White+Fleet%3A+Honoring+100+Years+of+Global+Partnerships+and+Security&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=9780945274599&amp;rft.place=Washington%2C+D.C.&amp;rft.pub=Naval+Historical+Center&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFFriedman1985" class="citation book">Friedman, Norman (1985). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "books.google.com/?id=Y41Ha_3HsrYC"><i>U.S. Battleships: An Illustrated Design History</i></a>. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-87021-715-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-87021-715-1">0-87021-715-1</a>. <a "/kiwi/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "
www.worldcatencarta2018.ga/oclc/12214729">12214729</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Norman&amp;rft.aulast=Friedman&amp;rft.btitle=U.S.+Battleships%3A+An+Illustrated+Design+History&amp;rft.date=1985&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-87021-715-1&amp;rft.place=Annapolis&amp;rft.pub=Naval+Institute+Press&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DY41Ha_3HsrYC&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F12214729&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFHart1965" class="citation book">Hart, R. A. (1965). <i>The Great White Fleet: Its Voyage Around the World, 19071909</i>. Boston: Little Brown. <a "/kiwi/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.worldcatencarta2018.ga/oclc/965439">965439</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=R.+A.&amp;rft.aulast=Hart&amp;rft.btitle=The+Great+White+Fleet%3A+Its+Voyage+Around+the+World%2C+1907%E2%80%931909&amp;rft.date=1965&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.place=Boston&amp;rft.pub=Little+Brown&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F965439&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation news">Nolte, Carl (6 May 2008). "Great White Fleet Visited S.F. 100 Years Ago". <i><a "/kiwi/San_Francisco_Chronicle" title="San Francisco Chronicle">San Francisco Chronicle</a></i>. p.&nbsp;B3.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.atitle=Great+White+Fleet+Visited+S.F.+100+Years+Ago&amp;rft.aufirst=Carl&amp;rft.aulast=Nolte&amp;rft.date=2008-05-06&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=San+Francisco+Chronicle&amp;rft.pages=B3&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Reckner, J. R. (1988). <i>Teddy Roosevelt's Great White Fleet: The World Cruise of the American Battlefleet, 19071909</i>. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/9780870216978" title="Special:BookSources/9780870216978">9780870216978</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=J.+R.&amp;rft.aulast=Reckner&amp;rft.btitle=Teddy+Roosevelt%27s+Great+White+Fleet%3A+The+World+Cruise+of+the+American+Battlefleet%2C+1907%E2%80%931909&amp;rft.date=1988&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=9780870216978&amp;rft.place=Annapolis&amp;rft.pub=Naval+Institute+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Wimmel, K. (1998). <i>Theodore Roosevelt and the Great White Fleet: American Sea Power Comes of Age</i>. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/9781574881530" title="Special:BookSources/9781574881530">9781574881530</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=K.&amp;rft.aulast=Wimmel&amp;rft.btitle=Theodore+Roosevelt+and+the+Great+White+Fleet%3A+American+Sea+Power+Comes+of+Age&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=9781574881530&amp;rft.place=Washington%2C+D.C.&amp;rft.pub=Brassey%27s&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Russo-Japanese_War">Russo-Japanese War</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a "/w/index.php?title=Great_White_Fleet&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: Russo-Japanese War">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul>
<li><cite class="citation book">Busch, Noel F. (1969). <i>The Emperor's Sword; Japan vs. Russia in the Battle of Tsushima</i>. New York: Funk &amp; Wagnalls. <a "/kiwi/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "
www.worldcatencarta2018.ga/oclc/12442">12442</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Noel+F.&amp;rft.aulast=Busch&amp;rft.btitle=The+Emperor%27s+Sword%3B+Japan+vs.+Russia+in+the+Battle+of+Tsushima&amp;rft.date=1969&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Funk+%26+Wagnalls&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F12442&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Corbett, Julian, Sir (1994). <i>Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War 19041905</i>. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/1-55750-129-7" title="Special:BookSources/1-55750-129-7">1-55750-129-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Julian%2C+Sir&amp;rft.aulast=Corbett&amp;rft.btitle=Maritime+Operations+in+the+Russo-Japanese+War+1904%E2%80%931905&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=1-55750-129-7&amp;rft.place=Annapolis&amp;rft.pub=Naval+Institute+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span>. Originally classified Secret/Confidential until the 1950s; published in two volumes.</li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Pleshakov, Constantine (2002). <i>The Tsar's Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima</i>. New York: Basic Books. <a "/kiwi/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a "/kiwi/Special:BookSources/0-465-05792-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-465-05792-6">0-465-05792-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Constantine&amp;rft.aulast=Pleshakov&amp;rft.btitle=The+Tsar%27s+Last+Armada%3A+The+Epic+Voyage+to+the+Battle+of+Tsushima&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-465-05792-6&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Semenov, Vladimir, Capt. (1912). <i>The Battle of Tsushima</i>. New York: E.P. Dutton &amp; Co. <a "/kiwi/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a>&nbsp;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" "www.worldcatencarta2018.ga/oclc/51432337">51432337</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fencarta2018.ga%3AGreat+White+Fleet&amp;rft.aufirst=Vladimir%2C+Capt.&amp;rft.aulast=Semenov&amp;rft.btitle=The+Battle+of+Tsushima&amp;rft.date=1912&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=E.P.+Dutton+%26+Co.&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F51432337&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
</ul>
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<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Histori